Thomas II of York

Thomas II of York

Infobox Archbishop of York
name = Thomas II of York


birth_name = Thomas
began=unknown
consecration = 27 June 1109
term_end = 24 February 1114
predecessor = Gerard
successor = Thurstan
birth_date =
birthplace =
death_date =24 February 1114
deathplace = Beverley
tomb = York Minster

Thomas (died 24 February 1114), was a medieval archbishop of York. To distinguish him from his uncle, also a Thomas who was archbishop of York, Thomas is usually known as Thomas II or Thomas the Younger.

Life

He was the nephew of Thomas I of York, archbishop of York, [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=8457 British History Online Archbishops of York] accessed on 14 September 2007] and the son of the elder Thomas' brother Samson, Bishop of Worcester. He was a royal chaplain, and then provost of Beverley in 1092, both appointments he owed to his uncle.Burton "Thomas (d. 1114)" "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography"' [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/27200 Online Edition] accessed 11 November 2007] He was raised in the cathedral chapter at York, and the clergy of York trusted him,Vaughn "Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan" p. 336-357] and he proved himself devoted to York's cause against the primacy of Canterbury.Barlow, Frank, "The English Chruch 1066-1154" p. 43] Thomas' brother Richard became Bishop of Bayeux in about 1108 until Richard's death in 1133.Barlow "The English Church 1066-1154" p. 58] Thomas and Richard's sister, Isabelle of Douvres, was the mistress of Robert of Gloucester, and their son Richard was Bishop of Bayeux from 1135 to 1142.Spear "The Norman Empire and the Secular Clergy" "Journal of British Studies" p. 5]

The younger Thomas became archbishop May of 1108Fryde "Handbook of British Chronology" p. 281] at the request of the dean and cathedral chapter of York. Like his uncle he refused to promise obedience to the archbishop of Canterbury; his consecration was then delayed. Thomas said that the chapter would not allow him to make a written profession, and the chapter wrote as a body to Archbishop Anselm confirming this. Meanwhile, the dean of York went to Rome to procure the pallium for Thomas, which was sent with a papal legate. The dispute was still unsettled when Anselm died in April of 1109. Anselm had told the bishops before his death that he felt that Thomas must make a profession of obedience, and obediently the bishops appealed to the king's court to make Thomas do so. Henry I and his bishops then decided against Thomas, who was forced to make the necessary promiseCantor "Church, Kingship, and Lay Investiture" p. 300-301] and was consecrated in London on 27 June 1109 by Richard de Beaumis, bishop of London. He received his pallium from Cardinal Ulrich, the legate, on 1 August 1109.

He worked to extend York's metropolitan authority over Scotland, and consecrated Michael of Glasgow as Bishop of Glasgow. Michael made a written profession of obedience to York before his consecration. Thomas also consecrated Thurgot as Bishop of St Andrews, although Thurgot seems to have managed to insert a reservation of his rights into his oath.Bartlett "England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings" p. 94] Other Scottish bishops he consecrated were Radulf Novell as Bishop of Orkney and Wimund to as Bishop of Man and the Isles.

In his own diocese he founded the Hospital of St. John the Baptist at Ripon. [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=36300 British History Online Victoria County History of York] accessed on 14 September 2007] He also created more prebends in his diocese, extending the work of his two predecessors in introducing the Norman system of ecclesiastical government. He is said have only been stopped from approrpiating the relics of Saint Eata by a vision of the saint. He also endowed the Augustinian priory of Hexham with lands and books. He had helped found the priory at Hexham when he expelled the hereditary priest from the church and settled canons there from Huntingdon.Burton "Monastic and Religious Orders" p. 48]

He died at Beverley on 24 February 1114. He was noted for his chastity, but equally noted for his gluttony, and died of overeating.Barlow "The English Church 1066-1154" p. 82] Thomas was buried in York Minster near his uncle. Hugh the Chantor relates the story that Thomas one time when ill was told by his doctors that he would only be cured by intercourse with a young girl. Some of Thomas' friends then attempted to introduce a young woman into his household, but Thomas instead prayed to St. John of Beverley and recovered.

Notes

References

* Bartlett, Robert "England Under the Norman and Angevin Kings: 1075-1225" Oxford:Clarendon Press 2000 ISBN 0-19-822741-8
* Barlow, Frank "The English Church 1066-1154" London:Longman 1979 ISBN 0-582-50236-5
* [http://british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=8457 British History Online Archbishops of York] accessed on 14 September 2007
* [http://www.british-history.ac.uk/report.asp?compid=36300 British History Online Victoria County History of York] accessed on 14 September 2007
*
* Burton, Janet "Thomas (d. 1114)" "Oxford Dictionary of National Biography"' Oxford University Press, 2004 [http://www.oxforddnb.com/view/article/27200 Online Edition] accessed 11 November 2007
* Cantor, Norman F. "Church, Kingship, and Lay Investiture in England 1089-1135" Princeton, NJ:Princeton University Press 1958
*
* Spear, David S. "The Norman Empire and the Secular Clergy, 1066-1204" "The Journal of British Studies" Volume XXI Number 2 Spring 1982 p. 1-10
* Vaughn, Sally N. "Anselm of Bec and Robert of Meulan" Berkeley:University of California Press 1987 ISBN 0-520-05674-4

Persondata
NAME=Thomas II of York
ALTERNATIVE NAMES=
SHORT DESCRIPTION=Archbishop of York
DATE OF BIRTH=
PLACE OF BIRTH=
DATE OF DEATH=24 February 1114
PLACE OF DEATH=Beverley


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