- Glastonbury Tor
Name = Glastonbury Tor
Photo = Glastonbury Tor.jpg
Elevation = convert|518|ft|m
Prominence = convert|476|ft|m
OS "Landrangers" 182, 183
Last eruption =
First ascent =
Easiest route =
Grid_ref_UK = ST512386
Listing = Sub-Marilyn
Glastonbury Tor is a
hillat Glastonbury, Somerset, England, which features the roofless St. Michael's Tower. The site is managed by the National Trust.
Tor is a local word of Celtic origin meaning 'conical hill'. The Tor has a striking location in the middle of a plain called the Summerland Meadows, part of the
Somerset Levels. The plain is actually reclaimed fenland out of which the Tor rose like an island, but now, with the surrounding flats, is a peninsulawashed on three sides by the River Brue. The remains of Glastonbury Lake Villagewere identified in 1892, showing that there was an Iron Age settlement about 300–200 BC on what was an easily defended island in the fens. [cite web |url=http://webapp1.somerset.gov.uk/her/details.asp?prn=23637 |title=Glastonbury Lake Village |accessdate=2007-11-18 |work=Somerset Historic Environment Record ] [cite book |last=Adkins |first=Lesley |coauthors=Roy Adkins |title=A field guide to Somerset archeology |year=1992 |publisher=Dovecote Press |location=Wimborne |isbn=0946159947 ]
Earthworks and Roman remains prove later occupation. The spot seems to have been called "Ynys yr Afalon" by the Britons, and it is believed to be the
Avalonof Arthurian legend.
The slopes of the Tor appear to be quite regularly terraced. Some believe that this formation is the remains of an ancient, perhaps
Neolithic, sacred labyrinth.cite web |url=http://www.glastonburytor.org.uk/introduction.html |title=Introducing Glastonbury Tor |accessdate=2007-12-25 |format= |work=Glastonbury Tor ] Others attribute the terraces to natural ruts formed everywhere on grassy slopes by generations of grazing animals, which are slow to disappear if the grass cover is left undisturbed. The generally accepted explanation is terracing for farming, possibly by medieval monks. [cite web |url=http://www.britainexpress.com/counties/somerset/az/Glastonbury.htm |title=Glastonbury Travel Information |accessdate=2007-12-25 |format= |work=Britain Express ] Even after the wetlands were drained by the Monks of Glastonbury Abbeyvia their vast network of drainage canals, the risk of flooding on the plain meant that farm land was at a premium for anything other than grazing cattle.
staff. [cite web |url=http://www.glastonburytor.org.uk/tor-maze.html |title=The Glastonbury Tor Maze |accessdate=2007-12-25 |format= |work=About Glastonbury Tor ] The Celtic name of the Tor was "Ynys Witrin," or sometimes "Ynys Gutrin," meaning "Isle of Glass". At this time the plain was flooded, the isle becoming a
peninsulaat low tide.
Remains of a 5th century
forthave been found on the Tor. This was replaced by the medieval St. Michael's church that remained until 1275. According to the British Geological Survey's, an earthquake was recorded on 11 September 1275which was felt in London, Canterbury and Wales and this quake was what destroyed the church of St. Michael, Glastonbury Tor. [cite web |url=http://www.quakes.bgs.ac.uk/earthquakes/historical/historical_listing.htm |title= Historical Earthquake Listing|accessdate=2007-12-25 |format= |work=British Geological Survey ] The quake is reported to have destroyed many houses and churches in England. It is suggested that the quake had a magnitude of well over 7 MSK and it is possible that the epicentre of the quake was in the area around Portsmouthor Chichester, South England.
A second church, built in the 1360s, survived until the
Dissolution of the Monasteriesin 1539 when the Tor was the place of execution where Richard Whytingthe last Abbotof Glastonbury Abbeywas hanged, drawn and quarteredalong with two of his monks. The remains of St. Michael's Tower were restored in modern times. It is a grade I listed buildingand is managed by the National Trust. [cite web | title=St Michael's Church Tower | work=Images of England | url=http://www.imagesofengland.org.uk/search/details.aspx?id=266011 | accessdate=2006-11-11]
The site of the
fairheld at the foot of the Tor is embodied in the traditional name of "Fair Field" given to an agricultural enclosure, the enclosures in the local landscape dating from the 18th century.
The Tor has been associated with the name Avalon, and identified, since the alleged discovery of King Arthur and Queen Guinevere's neatly labelled coffins in 1191, with the legendary hero
King Arthur. Modern archaeology has revealed a fort, dated to the 5th century.
With the 19th-century resurgence of interest in
Celtic mythology, the Tor became associated with Gwyn ap Nudd, who was first Lord of the Underworld, and later King of the Fairies. The Tor came to be represented as an entrance to Annwnor Avalon, the land of the fairies.
A persistent myth of more modern origin is that of the Glastonbury Zodiac, an astrological
zodiacof gargantuan proportions said to have been carved into the land along ancient hedgerows and trackways. The theory was first put forward in 1927 by Katherine Maltwood, an artist with an interest in the occult, who thought the zodiac was constructed approximately 5,000 years ago. The vast majority of the land said to be covered by the zodiac was, at the proposed time of its construction, under several feet of water. Christopher Hodappasserts in his book "The Templar Code For Dummies" that Glastonbury Tor is one of the possible locations of the Holy Grail. This is because it is the location of the monastery that housed the Nanteos Cup. ["The Templar Code for Dummies" (with Alice Von Kannon) ISBN 0-470-12765-1 ]
The seven deep, roughly symmetrical terraces are one of the Tor's enduring mysteries. A number of possible explanations for them have been put forward:
* Agriculture — many cultures, not least the British farmers of the Middle Ages have terraced hills to make ploughing for crops easier. Mann, however, observes that if agriculture had been the reason for the creation of the terraces, it would be expected that the effort would be concentrated on the south side, where the sunny conditions would provide a good yield, however it may be seen that the terraces are equally deep on the north, where there would be little benefit. Additionally, none of the other slopes of the island have been terraced, even though the more sheltered locations would provide a greater return on the labour involved.
* Cattle grazing — over long periods of time, cattle grazing can cause terraces to develop, but these are usually of a much smaller size than those observed at Glastonbury and also tend to run parallel to the contours of the hill. In some places, the terraces of Glastonbury are quite steep and it is difficult to point to other hills with comparable patterns of livestock-induced erosion.
*Defensive ramparts — Other Iron Age hill forts in the area show evidence of extensive fortification of the slopes of hills, (for example, South Cadbury Castle). However, the normal form of these ramparts is that of a bank and ditch and on the Tor, there is no evidence of this arrangement. Additionally, South Cadbury, as one of the most extensively fortified places in early Britain had three concentric rings of banks and ditches supporting an 18 hectare enclosure. By contrast, the Tor has seven rings and very little space on top for the safekeeping of a community, making it a strange thing indeed to have spent so much effort to have gained so little.
*Labyrinth — Professor Rahtz felt that the theory that the Tor terraces formed the remains of a three dimensional labyrinth was "well worth consideration" (in Mann, 1993). The theory, first put forward by Geoffrey Russell in 1968, states that the 'classical labyrinth' (
Caerdroia), a design found all over the Neolithic world, can be easily transposed onto the Tor so that by walking around the terraces one eventually reaches the top in the same pattern. Evaluating this hypothesis is not easy. A Labyrinth would very likely place the terraces in the Neolithic era (Rahtz, in Mann, 1993), but given the amount of occupation since then, there may have been substantial modifications by farmer and/or monks and conclusive excavations have not been carried out.
The Tor consists of layers of clay and
blue liasstrata (Jurassic sandstone) with a cap of hard midford sandstone, whose resistance to erosion compared to the lower layers is responsible for its height. The iron-rich waters of Chalice Well, a spring, have been flowing out as an artesian well for millions of years, impregnating the sandstone round it with iron oxides that have reinforced it. Iron-rich but oxygen-poor water in the aquifer carries dissolved Iron (II) "ferrous" iron, but as the water surfaces and its oxygen content rises, the oxidized Iron (III) "ferric" iron drops out as insoluble "rusty" oxides that bind to the surrounding stone, hardening it. As the surrounding soft sandstone has eroded away, Glastonbury Tor has slowly been revealed.
Glastonbury Tor has been used in various fictional works. Some examples are given below:
science fiction television series" Stargate SG-1", hidden beneath Glastonbury Tor is a secret chamber of King Arthur and Merlin; Merlin, according to the show, was actually a member of a race known as the Ancients (or the Alterans) ("Avalon").
Camelot 3000" Arthur is buried (and resurrected) in a tomb found in the tower. In a later issue, the knights revisit the place to claim the Holy Grailfrom the Fisher King
Conquests of Camelot", a 1989 computer gamereleased by Sierra On-Linebased on the Arthurian Legends about the Holy Grail, features Glastonbury Tor as one of the possible locations of the Grail.
science fiction novelseries "Area 51", this is the site of the Hall of Records for the Watchers, who monitor the war between the Arlia.
*The third instalment of the "
Broken Sword" series of computer games sees Glastonbury Tor as the centre of the Earth's ley linesand site of the emergence of an evil power. It is also the scene for the end battle between George and a dragon.
*In the second and third deliveries of the trilogy by
Marion Zimmer Bradley, "Lady of Avalon" and "The Mists of Avalon", Glastonbury of the Monks is the area where the Isle of Avalon is located, separated from the real world by magical mists, and governed by priestesses that descend from a royal line of ancients. In Avalon, instead of a church, at the top of the Tor there is an ancient stone circle, probably similar to the one in Aveburyor Stanton Drew.
*It was featured on the 2005 TV programme "
Seven Natural Wonders" as one of the wonders of the West Country.
Bernard Cornwell's "Warlord trilogy", Glastonbury Tor (called Ynys Wydryn) is the home and fortress of the Druid Merlin. The protagonist, Derfel Cadarn, was raised on the Tor. In "The Winter King" the Tor is raided and sacked by Gundleus, the warlord of Siluria, while Merlin is away.
* In the popular teenage fiction series "
Ally's World" by author Karen McCombie, the titular character's younger brother is named Tor after Glastonbury Tor, where his parents visited whilst his mum was pregnant.
European Megalithic Culture
*"Glastonbury: Alternative Histories", in
Ronald Hutton, "Witches, Druids and King Arthur"
*'Glastonbury Tor — A guide to the history and legends', Mann, Nicholas R., 1993, Triskele publications, Butleigh, Somerset. ISBN 0-9510682-1-0
*'Glastonbury', Philip Rahtz, English Heritage/Batsford 1993, ISBN 0-7134-68661
* [http://www.nationaltrust.org.uk/main/w-vh/w-visits/w-findaplace/w-glastonburytor/ Glastonbury Tor information at the National Trust]
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/somerset/nature/walks/ bbc.co.uk/somerset: The Glastonbury To(u)r]
* [http://www.earlybritishkingdoms.com/archaeology/glastor.html Archaeology on the Tor]
* [http://www.glastonburytor.org.uk/tor-conserve.html National Trust conservation statement, 1999] : topography, archaeology, associative values, policies
* [http://www.bbc.co.uk/dna/360/A633070 Explanation of the geological origin of Glastonbury Tor]
* [http://www.panavista.eu/#0.9.1 Pilgrim's Way, panoramic picture of Glastonbury Tor]
* [http://www.somerset3d.co.uk/logos%20&%20pictures/town%20&%20village%20pages/glastonburytor.htm Take a trip to the Tor in 3d (Anaglyphs)]
* [http://www.quakes.bgs.ac.uk/earthquakes/historical/historical_listing.htm British Geological Survey] (in relation to the quake of 1275. If you go to this link, scroll down to the quake of 11th September 1275)
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