- Kerberos (protocol)
Kerberos is a
computer network authenticationprotocol, which allows individuals communicating over a non-secure network to prove their identity to one another in a secure manner. It is also a suite of free softwarepublished by Massachusetts Institute of Technology(MIT) that implements this protocol. Its designers aimed primarily at a client-servermodel, and it provides mutual authentication — both the user and the server verify each other's identity. Kerberos protocol messages are protected against eavesdroppingand replay attacks.
Kerberos builds on
symmetric key cryptographyand requires a trusted third party. Extensions to Kerberos can provide for the use of public-key cryptographyduring certain phases of authentication.
History and development
MIT developed Kerberos to protect network services provided by
Project Athena. The protocol was named after the Greek mythological character "Kerberos" (or "Cerberus"), known in Greek mythology as being the monstrous three-headed guard dog of Hades. Several versions of the protocol exist; versions 1–3 occurred only internally at MIT.
Steve Miller and [http://clifford.neuman.name/ Clifford Neuman] , the primary designers of Kerberos version 4, published that version in the late 1980s, although they had targeted it primarily for
Version 5, designed by John Kohl and Clifford Neuman, appeared as RFC 1510 in 1993 (made obsolete by RFC 4120 in 2005), with the intention of overcoming the limitations and security problems of version 4.
MIT makes an implementation of Kerberos freely available, under copyright permissions similar to those used for BSD. In 2007, MIT formed the [http://www.kerberos.org Kerberos Consortium] to foster continued development.
Authorities in the United States classified Kerberos as a
munitionand banned its export because it used the DES encryption algorithm(with 56-bit keys). A non-US Kerberos 4 implementation, [http://www.pdc.kth.se/kth-krb/ KTH-KRB] developed at the Royal Institute of Technologyin Sweden, made the system available outside the US before the US changed its cryptography export regulations ("circa" 2000). The Swedish implementation was based on a version called eBones. eBones was based on the exported MIT Bones release (stripped of both the encryption functions and the calls to them) based on version Kerberos 4 patch-level 9. This somewhat limited Kerberos was called the eBones release. A Kerberos version 5 implementation, [http://www.pdc.kth.se/heimdal/ Heimdal] , was released by basically the same group of people releasing KTH-KRB.
Windows2000 and later use Kerberos as their default authentication method. Some Microsoftadditions to the Kerberos suite of protocols are documented in RFC 3244 "Microsoft Windows 2000 Kerberos Change Password and Set Password Protocols". RFC 4757 documents Microsoft's use of the RC4cipher. While Microsoft uses the Kerberos protocol, it does not use the MIT software. [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa378747(VS.85).aspx]
Mac OS Xalso uses Kerberos in both its client and server versions.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux4 and later uses Kerberos in both client and server versions. As of 2005, the IETF Kerberos working group is updating the specifications [http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/krb-wg-charter.html] . Recent updates include:
* "Encryption and Checksum Specifications" (RFC 3961),
Advanced Encryption Standard(AES) Encryption for Kerberos 5" (RFC 3962),
* A new edition of the Kerberos V5 specification "The Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)" (RFC 4120). This version obsoletes RFC 1510, clarifies aspects of the protocol and intended use in a more detailed and clearer explanation,
* A new edition of the GSS-API specification "The Kerberos Version 5 Generic Security Service Application Program Interface (GSS-API) Mechanism: Version 2." (RFC 4121).
Kerberos uses as its basis the
Needham-Schroeder protocol. It makes use of a trusted third party, termed a key distribution center(KDC), which consists of two logically separate parts: an Authentication Server (AS) and a Ticket Granting Server (TGS). Kerberos works on the basis of "tickets" which serve to prove the identity of users.
The KDC maintains a database of secret keys; each entity on the network — whether a client or a server — shares a secret key known only to itself and to the KDC. Knowledge of this key serves to prove an entity's identity. For communication between two entities, the KDC generates a
session keywhich they can use to secure their interactions.
securityof the protocol relies heavily on participants maintaining loosely synchronized time and on short-lived assertions of authenticity called "Kerberos tickets".
What follows is a simplified description of the protocol.The following abbreviations will be used:
*AS = Authentication Server
*TGS = Ticket Granting Server
*SS = Service Server
*TGT = Ticket Granting Ticket
Briefly, the client authenticates to AS using a long-term "
shared secret" and receives a ticket from the AS. Later the client can use this ticket to get additional tickets for SS without resorting to using the shared secret. These tickets can be used to prove authentication to SS.
In more detail:
User Client-based Logon Steps:
# A user enters a username and password on the client machine.
# The client performs a
one-way function(Hash mostly) on the entered password, and this becomes the secret key of the client/user.
Client Authentication Steps:
# The client sends a
cleartextmessage to the AS requesting services on behalf of the user. Sample message: "User XYZ would like to request services". Note: Neither the secret key nor the password is sent to the AS.
# The AS checks to see if the client is in its database. If it is, the AS sends back the following two messages to the client:
#* Message A: "Client/TGS Session Key" encrypted using the secret key of the client/user.
#* Message B: "Ticket-Granting Ticket" (which includes the client ID, client network address, ticket validity period, and the "client/TGS session key") encrypted using the secret key of the TGS.
# Once the client receives messages A and B, it decrypts message A to obtain the "Client/TGS Session Key". This session key is used for further communications with TGS. (Note: The client cannot decrypt Message B, as it is encrypted using TGS's secret key.) At this point, the client has enough information to authenticate itself to the TGS.
Client Service Authorization Steps:
# When requesting services, the client sends the following two messages to the TGS:
#* Message C: Composed of the "Ticket-Granting Ticket" from message B and the ID of the requested service.
#* Message D: Authenticator (which is composed of the client ID and the timestamp), encrypted using the "Client/TGS Session Key".
# Upon receiving messages C and D, the TGS retrieves message B out of message C. It decrypts message B using the TGS secret key. This gives it the "client/TGS session key". Using this key, the TGS decrypts message D (Authenticator) and sends the following two messages to the client:
#* Message E: "Client-to-server ticket" (which includes the client ID, client network address, validity period and "Client/Server Session Key") encrypted using the service's secret key.
#* Message F: "Client/server session key" encrypted with the "Client/TGS Session Key".
Client Service Request Steps:
# Upon receiving messages E and F from TGS, the client has enough information to authenticate itself to the SS. The client connects to the SS and sends the following two messages:
#* Message E from the previous step (the "client-to-server ticket", encrypted using service's secret key).
#* Message G: a new Authenticator, which includes the client ID, timestamp and is encrypted using "client/server session key".
# The SS decrypts the ticket using its own secret key to retrieve the "Client/Server Session Key". Using the sessions key, SS decrypts the Authenticator and sends the following message to the client to confirm its true identity and willingness to serve the client:
#* Message H: the timestamp found in client's Authenticator plus 1, encrypted using the "Client/Server Session Key".
# The client decrypts the confirmation using the "Client/Server Session Key" and checks whether the timestamp is correctly updated. If so, then the client can trust the server and can start issuing service requests to the server.
# The server provides the requested services to the client.
* Single point of failure: It requires continuous availability of a central server. When the Kerberos server is down, no one can log in. This can be mitigated by using multiple Kerberos servers and fallback authentication mechanisms.
* Kerberos requires the clocks of the involved hosts to be synchronized. The tickets have a time availability period and if the host clock is not synchronized with the Kerberos server clock, the authentication will fail. The default configuration requires that clock times are no more than 10 minutes apart. In practice
Network Time Protocoldaemons are usually used to keep the host clocks synchronized.
* The administration protocol is not standardized and differs between server implementations. Password changes are described in [http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc3244.txt RFC 3244] .
* Since the secret keys for all users are stored on the central server, a compromise of that server will compromise all users' secret keys.
* A compromised client will compromise the user's password
Secure remote password protocol(SRP)
Generic Security Services Application Program Interface(GSS-API)
* SDK Team, "Microsoft Kerberos (Windows)", MSDN Library aa378747(VS.85) [http://msdn.microsoft.com/en-us/library/aa378747(VS.85).aspx]
* B. Clifford Neuman and Theodore Ts'o, "Kerberos: An Authentication Service for Computer Networks", IEEE Communications, 32(9) pp33–38. September 1994. [http://gost.isi.edu/publications/kerberos-neuman-tso.html]
* John T. Kohl, B. Clifford Neuman, and Theodore Y. T'so, "The Evolution of the Kerberos Authentication System". Distributed Open Systems, pp78–94. IEEE Computer Society Press, 1994. [ftp://athena-dist.mit.edu/pub/kerberos/doc/krb_evol.PS] (Postscript format)
* Cisco Systems Security Configuration Guide [http://www.cisco.com/en/US/products/sw/iosswrel/ps1826/products_configuration_guide_chapter09186a00800d9c6b.html Configuring Kerberos]
* [http://learn-networking.com/network-security/how-kerberos-authentication-works How Kerberos Authentication Works]
* [http://web.mit.edu/kerberos/ Kerberos page] at
* [http://www.ietf.org/html.charters/krb-wg-charter.html Kerberos Working Group at IETF]
* [http://www.kerberos.org/ Kerberos Consortium] at
* [http://www.kerberos.org/software/whitepapers.html White Papers and Specifications] at
* [http://www.kerberos.org/software/adminkerberos.pdf Kerberos How-to]
* [http://www.xml-dev.com/blog/index.php?action=viewtopic&id=21 Kerberos explained visually]
* [http://www.isi.edu/gost/brian/security/kerberos.html "The Moron's Guide to Kerberos"]
* [http://www.faqs.org/faqs/kerberos-faq/general/ The Kerberos FAQ]
* [http://www.pdc.kth.se/heimdal/ Heimdal Kerberos page] at KTH
* [http://josefsson.org/shishi/ Shishi, a free Kerberos implementation for the GNU system]
* [http://web.mit.edu/kerberos/www/dialogue.html Designing an Authentication System: A Dialogue in Four Scenes. Humorous play concerning how the design of Kerberos evolved.]
* RFC 4120: The Kerberos Network Authentication Service (V5)
* [http://www.lsv.ens-cachan.fr/spore/kerberos.html Description of Kerberos 5 in the SPORE library]
* [http://www.microsoft.com/windowsserver2003/technologies/security/kerberos/default.mspx Kerberos Authentication in Windows Server 2003]
* [http://www.kerberos.org/software/tutorial.html Kerberos Tutorial]
* [http://www.usdoj.gov/atr/cases/ms_tuncom/major/mtc-00029523.htm Novell Inc's Comment to the Proposed Settlement between Microsoft and the Department of Justice - Microsoft purposefully breaks Kerberos interoperability]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.