England and Scotland football rivalry

England and Scotland football rivalry

The England and Scotland football rivalry is a highly competitive sports rivalry that exists between the national football teams of the two countries. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/11/99/battle_of_britain/473756.stm A history of fierce football rivalry] , BBC News, 13 October 1999] It is also the oldest international fixture in the world, first played in 1872 at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow. The close proximity of the neighbouring countries and their joint status as members of the United Kingdom has led to much rivalry between the nations in many forms, and the social and cultural effects of centuries of antagonism and conflict between the two has contributed to the intense nature of the sporting contests. Scottish nationalism has also been a factor in the Scots' desire to defeat England above all other rivals, with the Scots referring to the English as the "Auld Enemy". [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/517293.stm|title=Scots relish Auld Enemy showdown|publisher=BBC News Online|date=1999-11-12|accessdate=2007-09-16]

The footballing rivalry has diminished somewhat since the late 1970s, particularly since the annual fixture stopped in 1989. England have developed rivalries with Germany and Argentina, which some England fans now consider to be more important than the historic rivalry with Scotland. [cite web|url=http://www.caughtoffside.com/2007/08/21/who-are-englands-biggest-rivals-now-still-germany-portugal-argentina/2684.html
title=Who Are England’s Biggest Rivals Now? Still Germany? Portugal? Argentina?|work=caughtoffside|accessdaymonth=15 November |accessyear=2007
] Nonetheless, when there have been matches between the two nations, these have attracted great media attention, public interest and comment in both countries.

The rivalry also manifests itself in the fact that many Scottish people support England's opponents, and vice-versa, despite the fact that England and Scotland are both countries of the United Kingdom. [ [http://www.mailonsunday.co.uk/news/article-389385/See-Murray.html See you, Murray] , "Mail on Sunday", 6 June 2006] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/scotland/5014996.stm McConnell explains England stance] , BBC News, 25 May 2006] Whether Scots should support England against other national teams is routinely a matter of heated debate. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/commentisfree/2006/jun/25/comment.worldcup2006 The 'any-side-but-England' strategy is corrosive] , "The Guardian", 25 June 2006] [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/arts/main.jhtml?xml=/arts/2006/05/26/ftscots26.xml We Scots just canna cheer for the Sassenachs] , "Daily Telegraph", 25 June 2006] The BBC website has commented that the games "have represented all that is good and all that is bad about football since the fixture began,"cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/11/99/battle_of_britain/473756.stm|title=A history of fierce football rivalry|publisher=bbc.co.uk|date=1999-10-13|accessdate=2007-09-15] while "The Guardian" newspaper once reported that "for millions across both sides of the border the encounter represents a chance for the ultimate victory over the enemy."cite news|url=http://football.guardian.co.uk/Euro2000/Story/0,,103270,00.html|first=Vivek|last=Chaudhary|title=Passions hit fever pitch|work=The Guardian|date=1999-11-13|accessdate=2007-09-15] As of September 2007, the teams have played 110 matches; England have won 45, Scotland 41, and there have been 24 draws. [cite web|url=http://www.rsssf.com/tablese/engscores.html|title=England-Scotland matches, 1872-1999|publisher=Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation|accessdate=2007-09-15]

Background and early years

The rules of association football had been formalised and set down by the Football Association in England in 1863.Barrett, p. 8.] By the early 1870s, there had been discussions for some time about initiating an England versus Scotland game in the sport, and the pattern had been set by the first rugby union fixture between teams from the two countries, which had been played in early 1871.cite web|url=http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/sportscotland/asportingnation/article/0012/|title=The first international football match|publisher=BBC Scotland|first=Paul|last=Mitchell|accessdate=2007-09-16] An unofficial football match between representative teams from England and London-based Scottish players had been played on 5 March 1870 at the The Oval cricket ground in London; the 1–1 draw was the first of a series of five games between the teams played there over two days, with three wins for England and two draws.Barrett, p. 9.]

The popularity of these unofficial matches led to the Scots suggesting the playing of an official game, to help increase the popularity of the sport in Scotland. This first official match was held on 30 November 1872, on Scotland's national saint's day, St Andrew's Day, and took place at Hamilton Crescent in Partick, home of the West of Scotland Cricket Club. The Scotland team was made up entirely of players from Queen's Park, the most successful Scottish club of the period. The game ended a 0–0 draw, watched by a crowd of 4000 who had payed a shilling each for admission.

The first goal between the two sides was scored by England's Alexander Bosnor in the next game at The Oval, the first official match between the two in England, which the English won 4–2 on 8 March 1873. Following this, the game became an annual event, being held in England or Scotland in alternate years. Scotland took their first win in the fixture in the 1874 game, again played at Hamilton Crescent, where they defeated England 2–1. [cite web|url=http://www.scottishfa.co.uk/match_details.cfm?matchid=58025|title=Scotland v England|publisher=Scottish Football Association|accessdate=2007-09-16] Later in the 1870s Scotland won the fixture three times in a row, including a 7–2 victory in the 1878 game.

Famous matches in the annual series

From the first match in late 1872, England and Scotland played each other in the spring of every year (except during the two world wars) until 1989. From 1884 until 1984, the match was the highlight of the annual British Home Championship played between England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland [Northern Ireland were only in the British Home Championship after 1950. Before then, a team representing the whole of Ireland selected by the Irish Football Association was in the Championship. This change was due to the secession of the Republic of Ireland from the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.] . After the British Home Championship ended in 1984, the annual England v Scotland fixture continued in the form of the Rous Cup until 1989.

The only exception to this pattern of annual fixtures in the spring was in 1973, when there were two games. The first game that year was a friendly match that marked the centenary of the Scottish Football Association. There were also two fixtures staged in 1902, but this was because the first game had to be abandoned due to the first Ibrox disaster. The British Home Championships also acted as qualifiers for three major tournaments - the 1950 World Cup, the 1954 World Cup and the 1968 European Championship.


"Wembley Wizards" is the name given to the 1928 Scotland team which defeated England 5–1 at Wembley in a match that has become mythologised by Scots ever since. The match had an unusual background; England and Scotland were the two traditionally dominant countries in the British Home Championship, yet neither side had managed to beat either Ireland or Wales in their first two games of that year's Championship.

Match summary

date = 31 March 1928
time = 12:30
team1 = fb-rt|ENG
score = 1–5
report =
team2 = fb|SCO
goals1 = Bob Kelly goal|89
goals2 = Alex Jackson goal|3 goal|65 goal|85
Alex James goal|44 goal|74
stadium = Wembley Stadium , London
referee = William Bell (Scotland)
attendance = 80,868


The game played in 1961 is infamous from the Scottish perspective, as they suffered their heaviest defeat in the fixture. Frank Haffey, the hapless Scottish goalkeeper, later decided to emigrate to Australia partly due to this game. Haffey's performance largely contributed towards the English stereotype of bad Scottish goalkeepers. [ [http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/sport/football-news/tm_objectid=16511102&method=full&siteid=66633&headline=we-d-only-have-lost-eight-if-i-d-been-wearing-glasses-name_page.html WE'D ONLY HAVE LOST EIGHT IF I'D BEEN WEARING GLASSES] , "Daily Record", 22 December 2005] [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2007/08/10/sfnphil110.xml Scots goalkeepers no longer a laughing stock] , "Daily Telegraph", 10 August 2007]

Match summary

date = 15 April 1961
team1 = fb-rt|England
score = 9–3
team2 = fb|Scotland
goals1 = Bobby Robson goal|9
Jimmy Greaves goal|21 goal|30 goal|83
Bryan Douglas goal|55
Bobby Smith goal|73 goal|85
Johnny Haynes goal|78 goal|82
goals2 = Dave Mackay goal|48
Davie Wilson goal|53
Pat Quinn goal|75
stadium = Wembley Stadium, London
attendance = 97,350
referee = Marcel Lequesne (France)


The match played in 1967 is Scotland's most famous victory against England. England were World Champions and undefeated in 19 games [http://www.bbc.co.uk/scotland/sportscotland/asportingnation/article/0022/print.shtml Wembley Wizards 1967] , BBC] before the match, played at the ground where they had won their world title less than a year beforehand. Memorably, Jim Baxter played "keepie uppie" as Scotland toyed with their opponents. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/scotland/1187184.stm Tributes to Jim Baxter] , BBC Sport, 14 April 2001] Scotland were aided somewhat by the fact that Jack Charlton was hampered by an injury sustained early in the game. England manager Alf Ramsey was unable to substitute Charlton and therefore decided to use him in the unfamiliar role of centre forward. Ironically, Charlton scored England's first goal.

Naturally, the Scots claimed after the game that the victory made them "unofficial world champions". Ultimately, however, it was England who qualified for the 1968 European Championship because of results in the other matches.

Match summary

date = 15 April 1967
team1 = fb-rt|England
score = 2–3
team2 = fb|Scotland
goals1 = Jack Charlton goal|84
Geoff Hurst goal|88
goals2 = Denis Law goal|27
Bobby Lennox goal|78
Jim McCalliog goal|87
stadium = Wembley Stadium, London
attendance = 99,063
referee = Gerhard Schulenburg
(West Germany)


The 1977 match is less memorable for what happened during the game itself, but what happened on the park "after" the game. The Scottish fans invaded the pitch, ripping up large sections of it and tearing down the goalposts. [ [http://www.dailymail.co.uk/sport/football/article-493501/Wait-till-Tartan-Army-sees-new-Wembley.html Wait till the Tartan Army sees the new Wembley!] , "Daily Mail", 13 November 2007] This incident contributed towards the growing awareness of football hooliganism in the United Kingdom.

The match itself was a triumph for the new Scotland manager Ally MacLeod, which contributed to the sense of optimism that built towards Scotland's participation in the 1978 FIFA World Cup. Gordon McQueen opened the scoring late in the first half with a powerful header from a crossed free-kick from the left-hand side. Kenny Dalglish doubled Scotland's advantage with a scrambled effort, before England scored a late consolation goal from a penalty kick taken by Mick Channon. The defeat hastened the end of Don Revie's tenure as England manager.

Match summary

date = 4 June 1977
team1 = fb-rt|ENG
score = 1–2
team2 = fb|SCO
goals1 = Mick Channon (pen) goal|87
goals2 = Gordon McQueen goal|42
Kenny Dalglish goal|60
stadium = Wembley Stadium, London
attendance = 98,103
referee = Károly Palotai (Hungary)

Matches since the end of the annual series

1996 European Championship

In December 1995, despite media rumours that UEFA would deliberately keep the two apart in the draw,cite news|title=Draw eases England's path|first=Rob|last=Hughes|work=The Times|date=1995-12-18|page=21] England and Scotland were both drawn in the same group for the forthcoming European Championships, to be hosted by England in the summer of 1996. This draw excited much comment and anticipation in the build-up to the championships, especially as it would be the first meeting between the two sides for seven years, and tickets for the game sold out within two days of the draw being made. [cite news|title=Old enemies unite to prevent trouble at Wembley|work=The Times|page=40|date=1995-12-19] The match assumed even greater significance for both teams when both England and Scotland drew their opening fixtures, against Switzerland and the Netherlands respectively, meaning both were even more in need of a win to further their chances of progressing in the tournament.

The match was played at Wembley Stadium on Saturday 15 June 1996, and the first half was closely-fought, ending 0–0, although Scotland had the better of the chances.cite news|title=Gazza's moment gives England momentum|work=The Independent|date=1996-06-17] The introduction of Jamie Redknapp into the England team as a substitute for the second half helped to turn the match in England's favour,cite news|title=Pride spurs Lionhearts|first=Paul|last=Wilson|work=The Observer|date=1996-06-16|page=12] cite news|title=A sublime moment from the ridiculous|first=Stan|last=Hey|work=The Independent on Sunday|date=1996-06-16|page=30] and they took the lead through a headed goal by Alan Shearer. Scotland were awarded a penalty kick in the 76th minute after a foul by Tony Adams on Gordon Durie, but Gary McAllister's kick was saved by the England goalkeeper David Seaman. Shortly afterwards, Paul Gascoigne, who played in Scotland for the Glasgow club Rangers, scored a second goal for England, after chipping the ball over Scottish defender Colin Hendry.cite news|title=Pure Gazza, pure genius|first=Joe|last=Lovejoy|work=The Sunday Times|date=1996-06-16|page=28] In 2006, the year before he became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Scotsman Gordon Brown drew criticism in Scotland when he stated that Gascoigne's goal was one of his favourite moments in football, [cite news|url=http://politics.guardian.co.uk/otherparties/comment/0,,1784319,00.html|title=Terror of the Scottish Raj|first=Ewan|last=Crawford|work=The Guardian|date=2006-05-27|accessdate=2007-09-15] although Brown subsequently denied saying this. [http://www.independent.co.uk/news/uk/politics/gordon-brown-answers-uyouru-questions-454817.html Gordon Brown answers your questions] , "The Independent", 27 June 2007]

Scotland eventually went out of the championships on goal difference, but would have proceeded beyond the first round of a tournament for the first time in their history had England not conceded a late goal in their 4–1 defeat of the Netherlands in their next game. [cite news|title=Scots so near and yet so far|first=David|last=Lacey|work=Daily Mail|date=1996-06-19|page=68] It has been joked that England fans were happy their team had conceded the goal as it meant that the Scots were eliminated from the competition. [cite web|quote=England fans' joy was complete when Patrick Kluivert stole a late goal for the Dutch - and thereby deprived Scotland of a place in the quarter-finals.|url=http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/sport/2007/05/30/the_joy_of_six_england_perform.html|title=The Joy of Six: England's best performances since '66|publisher=Guardian Unlimited|date=2007-05-30|accessdate=2007-09-15]

date = 1996-06-15
time = 15:00
team1 = fb-rt|SCO
score = 0–2
report = [http://www.uefa.com/competitions/euro/history/season=1996/round=227/match=52485/index.html (Report)]
team2 = fb|ENG
goals1 =
goals2 = Shearer goal|53
Gascoigne goal|79
stadium = Wembley Stadium, London [Although the match was played at Wembley Stadium and was effectively a home game for England, Scotland had been drawn as the "home" team in the tie.]
attendance = 76,684
referee = Pierluigi Pairetto (Italy)

2000 European Championship

The Euro 96 game had encouraged some to call for the resumption of regular matches between the two, but this did not eventually happen. [cite news|title=My Euro 96 Diary|first=Graham|last=Kelly|authorlink=Graham Kelly (football)|work=The Times|date=1996-07-01|page=33|quote=Euphoria after the fantastic crowd behaviour at England v Scotland. The match could indeed be reinstated on a regular basis, but the fixture schedule is much heavier nowadays and you must consider the very heavy security arrangements that were in place. Would this need to be repeated?] The teams did not meet again until three years later, in 1999, when they were again drawn together in the European Championships; this time in a qualifying play-off for the 2000 tournament, after both teams had finished as runners-up in their respective qualifying groups. [cite web|url=http://football.guardian.co.uk/News_Story/0,,91657,00.html|title=Scotland to meet England in play-offs|publisher=Guardian Unlimited|date=1999-10-13|accessdate=2007-09-16]

The tie took place over two legs, the first in Scotland at Hampden Park on Saturday 13 November 1999, with the return leg at Wembley four days later. This was the first time the match had taken place in Scotland for ten years, but England won the first game 2–0, with two goals from Paul Scholes. [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/11/99/battle_of_britain/518724.stm|title=Scholes silences Scots|publisher=BBC News Online|date=1999-11-15|accessdate=2007-09-16] There was crowd trouble following the game, and 51 people were arrested in the city centre of Glasgow after battles between fans. [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/11/99/battle_of_britain/518451.stm|title=Running battles as fans clash|publisher=BBC News Online|date=1999-11-13|accessdate=2007-09-16] Scotland had the better of the second match, winning 1–0 with a goal from Don Hutchison and coming close to a second goal, but England narrowly progressed to the finals of the tournament, winning 2–1 on aggregate. [cite news|url=http://football.guardian.co.uk/Euro2000/Story/0,,104789,00.html|title=Hutchison restores Scots' pride|first=David|last=Lacey|work=The Guardian|date=1999-11-18|accessdate=2007-09-16]

date = 1999-11-13
time = 15:00
team1 = fb-rt|SCO
score = 0–2
report = [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/11/99/battle_of_britain/518724.stm (Report)]
team2 = fb|ENG
goals2 = Scholes goal|21 goal|41
stadium = Hampden Park, Glasgow
attendance = 50,132
referee = Manuel Diaz Vega (Spain)

date = 1999-11-17
time = 19:45
team1 = fb-rt|ENG
score = 0–1
report = [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/special_report/1999/11/99/battle_of_britain/525287.stm (Report)]
team2 = fb|SCO
goals2 = Hutchison goal|39
stadium = Wembley Stadium, London
attendance = 76,848
referee = Pierluigi Collina (Italy)


The UEFA Euro 2000 qualifying play-off in 1999 is the most recent occasion upon which the two have played, and there have been no matches so far in the 21st century. There have been many calls for the British Home Championship to be restored to the schedule, or at least for the England v Scotland fixture to be played more regularly. [ [http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/scottish-news/2007/11/23/5-good-reasons-to-bring-back-home-internationals-86908-20149339/ 5 Good Reasons To Bring Back Home Internationals..] , "Daily Record", 23 November 2007] There was some speculation that Scotland would be invited to be the first opponents when Wembley Stadium was re-opened following its rebuilding in 2007, [cite news|url=http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4156/is_20040222/ai_n12586965|title=Auld Enemies could open Wembley|first=Michael|last=Grant|work=The Sunday Herald|date=2004-02-22|accessdate=2007-09-16] but this did not eventually happen, and further suggestions that the fixture might be made regular again have similarly passed without action. [cite web|url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/low/football/1750547.stm|title=Auld Enemy clash may return|publisher=BBC News Online|date=2002-01-09|accessdate=2007-09-16]

There was further talk of organising a one-off England v Scotland match at the end of the 2007-08 season, [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/7091057.stm Scots eye summer England fixture] , BBC Sport, 12 November 2007] but the new Scotland manager George Burley was opposed to this timing and the match was not arranged. [ [http://www.guardian.co.uk/football/2008/feb/03/newsstory.scotlandfootballteam England game impractical, admits Burley] , "The Observer", 3 February 2008] SFA chief executive Gordon Smith has also raised the concern that the riots in Manchester on the day of the 2008 UEFA Cup Final may lead the FA to believe that there could be incidents of hooliganism connected to an England v Scotland fixture. [ [http://www.sundaymail.co.uk/sport-news/scottish-football/international-football/2008/05/25/gordon-smith-manchester-thugs-risk-to-wembley-revival-78057-20428774/ Gordon Smith: Manchester thugs risk to Wembley revival] , "Sunday Mail", 25 May 2008]

In December 2006, Lawrie Sanchez suggested that a tournament featuring Scotland, Northern Ireland, Wales and the Republic of Ireland be organised instead. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/6173603.stm Sanchez wants Celtic tournament] , BBC Sport, 12 December 2006] This tournament, now called the Celtic Cup, is proposed to begin in 2011. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/7342771.stm 'Four Nations' plan faces delay] , BBC Sport, 11 April 2008] There will not be a England v Scotland match until at least 2009 because England have already planned a schedule ahead of the next World Cup. [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/internationals/7366845.stm England-Scotland rematch on hold] , BBC Sport, 25 April 2008] The next theoretically possible meeting would be in a World Cup qualifying play-off in the autumn of 2009.


England have marginally the better record in the fixture, with 45 wins to 41 by Scotland. There have been 24 draws, only three of them goalless. England have scored 192 goals to 169 by Scotland. The record margin of victory in the fixture was England's 9–3 win in 1961. Scotland's biggest victory was 7–2 in 1878.

The record attendance was 149,547, set at Hampden Park on 17 April 1937. This is also a European record attendance. [ [http://www.hampdenroar.org.uk/section.cfm?sid=uuiho2pmxp9e415b8 "even today it holds every major record within European football"] , www.hampdenroar.org.uk]

All matches between England and Scotland

:"Scores and results list Scotland's goal tally first. "

Club level

As well as the rivalry between the national sides, English and Scottish club teams have also met on numerous occasions in the various European club competitions. These matches are invariably dubbed by the media as being the "Battle of Britain", irrespective of the clubs involved. [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?xml=/sport/2003/02/28/sfgliv28.xml Owen sets up battle of Britain] , "Daily Telegraph", 27 February 2003] [ [http://news.bbc.co.uk/sport1/hi/football/europe/3208546.stm Battles of Britain] , BBC Sport, 20 October 2003] [ [http://uk.eurosport.yahoo.com/09092006/4/roy-keane-battle-britain.html Roy Keane On Battle Of Britain] , Eurosport, 9 September 2006]

The most important club meeting was when fc|Celtic and Leeds United met in the semi-final of the 1970 European Cup. Celtic won the first leg at Elland Road 1–0, and the second leg was played at Hampden Park to allow a bigger crowd to attend than could be held at Celtic Park. Billy Bremner opened the scoring early on to level the aggregate score, but Celtic came back to win the match 2–1 and the tie 3–1. [ [http://www.leedsfans.org.uk/leeds/links/GlasgowCeltic.html Leeds United versus Glasgow Celtic] , www.leedsfans.org.uk]

In 1992, fc|Rangers emulated Celtic's feat of defeating Leeds United home and away. Celtic lost on the away goals rule to fc|Liverpool in 1997, but they beat fc|Blackburn Rovers and fc|Liverpool on their run to the 2003 UEFA Cup Final. The most recent meeting was when Celtic beat fc|Manchester United 1–0 in the group stage of the Champions League in the 2006-07 season. [ [http://www.independent.co.uk/sport/football/european/celtic-1-manchester-united-0-nakamura-class-leaves-united-on-a-knifeedge-425296.html Celtic 1 Manchester United 0: Nakamura class leaves United on a knife-edge] , "The Independent", 22 November 2006]

Celtic and Manchester United have been drawn to play each other in Group E of the 2008–09 Champions League.

Players and Managers

The rivalry between the two nations have not prevented their respective nationals from playing in each other's domestic leagues, in certain cases to high renown. Historically, the trend has been for Scottish players to play in the richer English league, although many English players have also played in Scotland.

Many great English sides have been built around Scottish players. The double winning Spurs team of 1961 included Bill Brown, Dave Mackay and John White. Denis Law is the second greatest goalscorer in the history of Manchester United. The great Liverpool teams of the 1970s and 1980s were built around Kenny Dalglish, Graeme Souness and Alan Hansen.

In recent times, the flow of Scottish players to major English clubs has dried up, as the Scotland team has been less competitive at international level and the English Premier League has attracted stars from all over the world, rather than just from the British Isles. [ [http://www.sportingo.com/Football/a8532_Can-Keegans-Newcastle-help-Scotland-produce-players-worthy-Premier-League Can Keegan's Newcastle help Scotland produce players worthy of the Premier League?] , www.sportingo.com, 9 May 2008] Darren Fletcher is currently the only Scottish player who is in the first team squad of one of the "big four" Premier League clubs. Scottish managers, however, such as Alex Ferguson and David Moyes, continue to hold top positions with major Premier League clubs, while few English managers hold similar positions. [ [http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/sport/2007/11/28/debate_does_it_matter_if_the_n.html Big debate: does it matter if the next England manager is English?] , "The Guardian", 28 November 2007]

There have been fewer notable English players who have played in Scotland. Joe Baker was the first player to play for England without having played in the Football League, but his was an isolated example because he played at a time when a player was only allowed to play for the country of his birth [ [http://blogs.guardian.co.uk/sport/2007/06/13/reluctant_sassenach_baker_who.html Reluctant Sassenach Baker who pioneered the Beckham trail] , The Guardian, 13 June 2007] . Those rules have subsequently been relaxed and the sons or even grandsons of Scots are now allowed to play for Scotland. This means that some English-born players have played in "and for" Scotland, including Andy Goram and Stuart McCall.

There was a large influx of English players to the Scottish league during the late 1980s after English clubs were banned from European competition due to the Heysel disaster. Prominent England players including Terry Butcher, Trevor Steven, Gary Stevens, Chris Woods and Mark Hateley all moved to Rangers. During this time, Rangers had a higher turnover than Manchester United [ [http://www.telegraph.co.uk/sport/main.jhtml?view=DETAILS&grid=&xml=/sport/2008/02/15/sfnrod115.xml Premier League could make a short leap north] , "Daily Telegraph", 15 February 2008] and could therefore offer wages that could compare with even the biggest English clubs.

Since the inception of the Premier League, however, the English clubs have become wealthier than Rangers and Celtic, despite the fact that the Old Firm dominate Scottish football and have significant income from European competition [ [http://www.dailyrecord.co.uk/news/scottish-news/2008/02/14/celtic-push-rangers-out-of-football-rich-list-86908-20318876/ Celtic Push Rangers Out Of Football Rich List] , "Daily Record", 14 February 2008] . Therefore no prominent England player has played in Scotland in recent years, although Chris Sutton and Alan Thompson played a significant part in Celtic's run to the 2003 UEFA Cup Final.


ee also

*Argentina and England football rivalry
*England and Germany football rivalry

External links

* [http://www.londonhearts.com/scotland/tea/england.html Scotland v England] , "London Hearts"
* [http://www.englandstats.com/search.php?q=search_opp Opponents] , "England Stats"
* [http://www.scottishfa.co.uk/archive.cfm?curpageid=153 National Team Archive] , Scottish Football Association
* [http://www.thefa.com/England/SeniorTeam/Archive/default.htm?i=4&pf=t&searchname=Scotland&
] , The Football Association

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