Generational list of programming languages

Generational list of programming languages

Here, a genealogy of programming languages is shown. Languages are categorized under the ancestor language with the strongest influence. Of course, any such categorization has a large arbitrary element, since programming languages often incorporate major ideas from multiple sources.

ALGOL based

*ALGOL (also under FORTRAN)
**Atlas Autocode
**ALGOL 60
***Simula (see also Simula based languages)
**ALGOL 68
**Burroughs Extended ALGOL
****Turbo Pascal
*****Object Pascal (Delphi)
******Free Pascal (FPC)
******Kylix (same as Delphi, but for Linux)
*****Concurrent Euclid
******Turing Plus
******Object Oriented Turing
*****Oberon (Oberon-1)
*******Component Pascal
*****Objective Modula-2 (also under Objective-C and Smalltalk)
*****tcsh (also under sh)
*******Join Java
*******Windows PowerShell (also under DCL, ksh and Perl)
*****eC (Ecere C)
*****Objective-C (also under Smalltalk)
******Objective Modula-2 (also under Modula-2 and Smalltalk)
*****PCASTL (also under Lisp)
******Windows PowerShell (also under C#, DCL and ksh)
******PDL (also under APL)

APL based

**J (also under FL)
**K (also under LISP)
**PDL (also under Perl)

BASIC based

*BASIC (also under FORTRAN II)
**Amiga Basic
**BASIC Stamp
**Business Basic
**Caché Basic
****Liberty BASIC
*****Just BASIC
*****Run BASIC
**Visual Basic
***Visual Basic for Applications (VBA)
***Visual Basic .NET

COBOL based

** [ WATBOL]

Batch languages

*MS-DOS Batch files
*IBM Job Control Language (JCL)

COMIT based


DCL based

**Windows PowerShell (also under C#, ksh and Perl)

FP based

*FP (Function Programming)
**FL (Function Level)
***J (also under APL)

Forth based

**RPL (also under Lisp)

Fortran based

***BASIC (see also BASIC based languages)
**Fortran 90
**Fortran 95
**Fortran 2003
** [ WATFOR]
**ALGOL (see also ALGOL based languages)

HyperTalk based


JOSS based

***Caché ObjectScript

Lisp based

**Common Lisp
**Emacs Lisp
**K (also under APL)
**Nu programming language
**RPL (also under Forth)
****PCASTL (also under ALGOL)

ASL Based

**Kent Recursive Calculator

ML based

**Standard ML (SML)
***Objective Caml (OCaml)
**MCPL (also under BCPL)

PL based


Prolog based


Today based


h based

**tcsh (also under C)
***Windows PowerShell (also under C#, DCL and Perl)

ed based

***perl (also under C)

ETL based


Eiffel based


imula based

*Simula (also under ALGOL 60)
**C++ (also under C)
***Objective-C (hybrid of C and Smalltalk)
***Objective Modula-2 (hybrid of Modula-2 and Smalltalk, following Objective-C blueprint)
****JavaScript (originally LiveScript)
*****JavaScript OSA



External links

* [ Diagram & history of programming languages]

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