Battle of Fort Duquesne

Battle of Fort Duquesne

Infobox Military Conflict

caption=This engraving by Alfred R. Waud depicts the British occupation of the remains of Fort Duquesne on November 25.
conflict=Battle of Fort Duquesne
partof=the French and Indian War
date=September 14, 1758
place=near present-day Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania
result=French Victory
combatant1=flagicon|France|restauration [George Ripley, Charles Anderson Dana, "The American Cyclopaedia", New York, 1874, p. 250, "...the standard of France was white, sprinkled with golden fleur de lis...". * [] The original Banner of France was strewn with fleurs-de-lis. * [] :on the reverse of this plate it says: "Le pavillon royal était véritablement le drapeau national au dix-huitième siecle...Vue du chateau d'arrière d'un vaisseau de guerre de haut rang portant le pavillon royal (blanc, avec les armes de France)." [] from the 1911 Encyclopedia Britannica: "The oriflamme and the Chape de St Martin were succeeded at the end of the 16th century, when Henry III., the last of the house of Valois, came to the throne, by the white standard powdered with fleurs-de-lis. This in turn gave place to the famous tricolour."] France
American Colonies
commander1=François-Marie Le Marchand de Lignery
commander2=James Grant
George Washington
strength1=600-800 French infantry and Native Americans
strength2=800-850 British and Provincial infantry
casualties1=8 killed,
8 wounded
casualties2=104 killed,
220 wounded,
19 captured [Stewart, "Sketches of the Character, Manners and Present State of the Highlanders of Scotland", Volume 2, Page 17]
The Battle of Fort Duquesne, which took place on September 14, 1758, was a failed attempt by elements of General John Forbes's British-American army to reconnoiter Fort Duquesne in the Ohio Valley during the French and Indian War.

Forbes commanded between 6,000 and 8,000 men, mostly British regular infantry and Provincial (American) troops, including a contingent of Virginians led by George Washington. Forbes, very ill, did not keep up with the advance of his army, but entrusted it to his second in command, Lt. Col. Henry Bouquet, a Swiss officer commanding a battalion of the Royal American Regiment. Bouquet sanctioned a reconnaissance of Fort Duquesene by Major James Grant of Ballindalloch, acting commander of the 77th Regiment of Foot (Montgomerie's Highlanders),


On September 11, 1758, Grant led over 800 men (regulars and American provincials) to scout the environs of Fort Duquesne ahead of Forbes's main column. Bouquet believed the fort to be held by 500 French and 300 Indians, a force too strong to be attacked by Grant's detachment. Grant, who arrived in the vicinity of the fort on the 14th, believed there were only 200 enemy within, and sent a small party of 50 men forward to scout. These saw no enemy outside the fort; they burned a storehouse and returned to Grant's main position, two miles from the fort.

The next morning, Grant divided his force into several parts. A company of the 77th, under a Capt. McDonald, approached the fort with drums beating and pipes playing as a decoy. A force of 400 men lay in wait to ambush the enemy when they sallied out to attack McDonald, and several hundred more under the Virginian Maj. Andrew Lewis were concealed near the force's baggage train in hopes of surprising an enemy attack there.

The French and Indian force was, in fact, much larger than anticipated and moved swiftly. They overwhelmed McDonald's decoy force and overran the party that had been meant to ambush them. Lewis's force left its ambush positions and went to the aid of the rest of the force, but the French and Indians by then had gained a point of high ground above them and forced them to retire. Grant and Lewis fell back to their baggage train and tried to make a stand there, but their force was too demoralized, and most fled. Grant and Lewis were captured, nearly 300 other British and Provincial troops were killed or captured, but over 500 returned to rejoin the main army under Forbes and Bouquet.

Though the French had beaten off the initial British attack, de Lignery understood that his force of about 600 could not hold Fort Duquesne against the main British force of more than ten times that number. The French continued to occupy Fort Duquesne until November 26, when the garrison set fore to the fort and left under the cover of darkness. As the British marched up to the smoldering remains, they were confronted with an appalling sight. The Indians had cut off the heads of many of the dead Highlanders and impaled them on the sharp stakes on top of the fort walls, with their kilts displayed below. The British and Americans rebuilt Fort Duquesne, naming it Fort Pitt after the British prime minister William Pitt who had ordered the capture of that strategic location.



*Fleming, George Thornton, "History of Pittsburgh and Environs: From Prehistoric Days to the Beginning of the American Revolution", Volume I, (The American Historical Society Inc., New York and Chicago, 1922) This includes letters from both Grant and Washington discussing the action.

*Stewart, David, "Sketches of the Character, Manners and Present State of the Highlanders of Scotland"(John Donald Publishers Ltd., Edinburgh, 1977 - originally published in 1822)

External links

* [ The French Army 1600-1900]

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Игры ⚽ Поможем сделать НИР

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Battle of Fort Ligonier — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of Fort Ligonier partof=the French and Indian War date=October 12, 1758 place=Loyalhanna, Pennsylvania result=British victory combatant1=France and Indian allies combatant2=Britain commander1=De Vitri… …   Wikipedia

  • Fort Duquesne —    WM At junction of Alleghany and Monongahela Rivers, 22; battle at, 22. Hd Name changed to Fort Pitt by Bouquet, 16; plans for recapture of, 25 26.    Bib.: Parkman, Montcalm and Wolfe …   The makers of Canada

  • Duquesne Brewing Company — Location Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania Owner(s) Mark Dudash Year opened …   Wikipedia

  • Fort Ligonier — is a British fortification from the French and Indian War. The fort served as a staging area for the Forbes Expedition of 1758. During the eight years of its existence as a garrison, Fort Ligonier was never taken by an enemy. It served as a post… …   Wikipedia

  • Fort Pitt (Pennsylvania) — Fort Pitt was a fort in what is now the city of Pittsburgh, Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The fort was built in 1758 during the French and Indian War, next to the site of Fort Duquesne. The French built Fort Duquesne in 1754, at the beginning… …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of Great Cacapon — Part of the French and Indian War Date April 18, 1756[1] Location nea …   Wikipedia

  • Fort Michilimackinac — U.S. National Register of Historic Places U.S. National Historic Landmark …   Wikipedia

  • Fort Machault — was a fort built by the French in 1754 near the confluence of French Creek with the Allegheny River, at present day Franklin, in northwest Pennsylvania. The fort was part of a line that included Fort Presque Isle, Fort Le Boeuf and Fort Duquesne …   Wikipedia

  • Battle of the Great Meadows — Infobox Military Conflict conflict=Battle of the Great Meadows partof=the French and Indian War caption= date=July 3, 1754 place=Near present Uniontown, Fayette County, Pennsylvania result=French Indian victory… …   Wikipedia

  • Fort Pitt Museum — Infobox historic area | name = Fort Pitt Museum, Pennsylvania, USA iucn category = caption = Map of the U.S. state of Pennsylvania showing the location of Fort Pitt Museum locator x = 24 locator y = 113 location = Pittsburgh, Allegheny County,… …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”