- Spanish nationalism
Spanish nationalism is the
social, politicaland ideologicalmovement which has shaped Spain's national identitysince the 19th century. [Santos Juliá [http://www.elpais.com/articulo/panorama/respiro/elpepusocdgm/20080323elpdmgpan_2/Tes/ "Un respiro"] , El País, 23/03/2008.]
Spanish nationalism is not an
irredentistnationalism per se, the only territorial revindication identified as actually being "national" as such having been Gibraltar(as of the 18th century), all other territorial revindications having historically been colonial or imperialist(in the 19th century, against the independence of Latin America, and in the 20th century, concerning the Maghreb) Nor has this been a centripetal nationalismFact|date=June 2008 (to have been aimed at unifying communities of Spaniards under the yoke of other sovereignties) but it has, indeed, been witness to the birth of peripheral nationalismswhich have been operating as centrifugal nationalist movements (aimed at shaping alternative national identities) since the late 19th century.
Just as in all other
Western European nation-states( Portugal, Franceand England), the shaping of an authoritarian monarchy as of the late Middle Agesgave rise to the parallel secular development of the State and Nation in Spain under the Spanish Monarchy's successive territorial conformations. As occurred in each one of these cases, the national identity and the territorial structure proper gave rise to many different outcomes in the end, but always – and also in the case of Spain – as a result of the way in which the institutions responded to the economic and social dynamic (at times despite these very institutions) and not fully flourishing in their contemporary aspect until the Old Regime had succumbed. The clearest-cut identification factor existed throughout this ethnic-religious period in the form of " Old Christian" status. At the end of this period (18th century), the linguistic identification factor was gradually accentuated revolving around the Castilianor Spanish languagewith new institutions such as the Spanish Royal Academy.
Historically, Spanish nationalism emerged with
liberalism, and in the Spanish War of Independece against Napoleon. [The label "nacionalist" has not succeeded in Spain as an auto-denomination, but the existence of a similar phenomenon to the contemporany European nationalisms has been broadly studied. The fact is related in these article: Joan B. Culla i Clarà [http://www.elpais.com/articulo/cataluna/Nacionalistas/espejo/elpepuespcat/20070316elpcat_8/Tes "Nacionalistas sin espejo"] , El País, 16 de marzo de 2007.]
Since 1808 we can talk about nationalism in Spain: ethnic patriotism became fully national, at least among the elite. This was unmistekabily the work of liberals. The modernizing elites used the occasion to try to impose a programme of social and political changes, and the method was to launch the revolutionary idea of the nation as the holder of sovereignty. The national myth was mobilising against a foreign army and against "colaborationist" with
José Bonaparte, regarded as non-Spanish (" afrancesados"). The Spanish liberals resorted to the identification between patriotism and the defense of liberty: as the Asturian deputy Agustín Argüelleswhile presented the Constitution of 1812, "Spaniards, you now have a homeland." [ José Álvarez Junco(2001) "Mater dolorosa. La idea de España en el siglo XIX" Madrid: Taurus. Cited in José Uría, "Página Abierta", 157, marzo de 2005 [http://www.pensamientocritico.org/josalv0305.htm] .]
Since then, it has often changed its contents and its ideological and political proposals: successively "doceañista", "esparterista", even briefly "iberista" (advocating union with
Portugalin the dynastic crisis of 1868). The Carlism, who was a defensive movement of Old Regime, did not regard the adjective "national" with any esteem ( national sovereignty, National Guard national properties... were the vocabulary of liberals, particularly since more "progresistas"). However, the Spanish nationalism that demonstrated to be decisive in the twentieth century came from the frustration due to the disaster of 1898, that has been called regenerationism, claimed from movements very opposite one another: the ruling bourbon-dynastics ( Francisco Silvela, Eduardo Dato, Antonio Maura), the republican opposition (that only had a contradictory and brief stay in power) and even the army (1917 crisis and dictatorships of Miguel Primo de Riveraand Francisco Franco).
Specifically, under the name of
panhispanism(more properly referred to a movement focused on the unity of hispanoamerican nations) understood as Spanish imperialism, it is used to refer specifically the movement emerged after the crisis of 1898, within the broader context thtat included the regeneracionismand the generation of 98(whose authors, coming from the Spanish periphery, agreed to consider Castile the expression of "the Spanish"), expressed in its more clear way by the second phase of Ramiro de Maeztu. Its ideologues and politicians were Ramiro Ledesmaand Onésimo Redondo(founders of the JONS) and Jose Antonio Primo de Rivera(founder of Falange); using an expression that has its origins in Jose Ortega y Gasset, defines Spain as "a unity of destiny in the universal", defending a return to traditional and spiritual values of Imperial Spain. The idea of empiremakes it universalist rather than localist, what makes it singular among certain nationalisms, but closer to others (especially the Italian fascism). It also incorporates a component resolutely traditionalist (with notable exceptions such as the vanguardismof Ernesto Giménez Caballero), rooted in a millennial history: that of traditional monarchy or Catholic Monarchy(although often is indifferent on the specific form of state) and, most importantly, it is not lay or secular, but expressly Roman Catholic, which will define (in the first franquism) the term National Catholicism.
The political transition which, together with social and economic changes in a profound sense of modernisation, was brewing since last franquism until the building of the current institutions (
Spanish Constitution of 1978and Statutes of Autonomy), produced a very sharp reversal of the social use of Spanish symbols of national identification, [ Antonia Maria Jimenez Ruiz "¿Y tú de quién eres? Identidad europea y lealtad a la nación" [http://www.uned.es/dcpa/Actividades/SeminarioDpto/Aruiz2003identidades.pdf] ] while peripheral nationalisms acquired a significant presence and territorial power, which becomes electorally majoritary in Catalonia( CIU, ERC) and Basque Country ( PNV, EAand so-called " abertzaleleft") and substantially lower in Navarre( CDNand Nabai) and Galicia ( BNG). Canary Islands(CC), Andalusia(PA) or other autonomous communities have less obvious nationalisms (often described as regionalisms), based on linguistic or historical "differential facts" no less marked than the previous ones.Fact|date=June 2008
From the field of peripheral nationalism, is often speak of Spanish nationalism [ [http://www.elmundo.es/2001/06/01/catalunya/1003950.html "El Parlament rechaza el «nacionalismo español»"] , El Mundo,
June 1, 2001] or "españolismo" [Francesc de Carreras, [http://www.e-dazibao.com/ criterio/archivos/000620.html "Catalanismo y españolismo"] , La Vanguardia, July 14, 2005] as equivalent to centralism, usually with a controversial political purpose, for identifying it with the extreme rightnostalgic for Franco's regime [ Edurne Uriartereply to Gregorio Peces Barba[http://www.abc.es/hemeroteca/historico-28-01-2005/abc/Opinion/los-nacionalistas-españoles_20242809878.html "Los nacionalistas españoles"] , ABC, January 28, 2005.] or with an alleged oppression from state on those territories, which in extreme cases (particularly ETAin Basque Country and Navarre) is used as justification for a terrorismthat see itself as " armed struggle" to the" national liberation". [It is a constant of their documents, to name one, "zutabe" -communication- on September 26, 2007, in 20minutos: [http://www.20minutos.es/noticia/281606/0/eta/zutabe/lucha/ "ETA announced that it will continue with the armed struggle until achieving "freedom"] ] By contrast, none of the major political parties affected by such designation of "españolistas" or Spanish nationalists, feels identified with the term, and often, instead, use the phrase "no nationalist" to designate themselves off the "nationalist", which is how they usually appoint the so-called "peripheral". [ Joan Romero: [http://www.elpais.com/articulo/opinion/tension/nacionalismos/Espana/elpepuopi/20080116elpepiopi_4/Tes "La tensión entre nacionalismos en España"] , El Pais, 16/01/2008]
From a more majoritary point of view, in social, territorial and electoral terms, [ [http://www.ieee.es/archivos/subidos/LOP/CIS_FAS_analisis.pdf surveys commissioned by the Ministry of Defence on "Pride of being Spanish" and "Emotion at symbols"] . [http://www.cis.es/cis/opencms/-Archivos/Boletines/22/BDO_22_Europa.html Survey CIS on the Spanish identity versus European identity] .] the identification with Spain, its symbols and institutions has become more characteristic of
constitutional patriotismor civic nationalism, [The prospect of People's Partyis reflected in this article Cesar Alcala:"The "constitutional patriotism" ' ' [Http://www.arbil.org/ (66) cesa.htm] . An article from Fernando Savater"Vivere libero" (El Pais, December 6, 2001) available at: [http://culturitalia.uibk.ac.at/hispanoteca/Landeskunde-Spanien/Autonom% C3% ADas / Topics 20de%%% C3% 20Autonom ADas / Patriotism 20constitucional.htm%] .] which seeks to respect the different visions of Spain fits in a pluralistic framework, "inclusive" and "no exclusive", concepts in which often coincide the majoritary political parties ( PSOEand PP) or minoritary (IU, UPyD, other regional parties or nationalist sometimes called "moderated"), despite maintaining deep political differences sometimes expressed in a very crisped way. [ José Luis Rodríguez Zapateroin the last phase of his first legislature, intensified the references to Spain: "Today speak about the Spanish flag and our fatherland is talking about freedom, rights and citizenship, which is the best way to express themselves with patriotism." Quoted by Luis Ayllón: "Zapatero se arropa con la bandera en sus mítines de Uruguay y Argentina" en ABC, November 12, 2007. Even has been included in advertising the words "Government of Spain", which previously was not used to refer to the central government or the State.]
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