Participant evolution

Participant evolution

Participant evolution is a process of deliberately redesigning the human body and brain using technological means, with the goal of removing "biological limitations." The idea of participant evolution was first put forward by Manfred E. Clynes and Nathan S. Kline in the 1960s in their article "Cyborgs and Space", where they argued that the human species was already on a path of participant evolution. Science fiction writers have speculated what the next stage of such participant evolution will be.

Whilst Clynes and Kline saw participant evolution as the process of creating cyborgs, the idea has been adopted and propounded by transhumanists who argue that individuals should have the choice of using human enhancement technologies on themselves and their children, to progressively become transhuman and ultimately posthuman, as part of a voluntary regimen of participant evolution.


* cite web|accessmonthday=June 12 |accessyear=2005
title=Manfred Clynes and the Cyborg
work=by Chris Hables Gray
which in turn cites an interview with Manfred E. Clynes in
** cite book
title=The Cyborg Handbook
author=Gray, Mentor, and Figueroa-Sarriera
location=New York | publisher=Routledge
pages 29-34, which in turn cites
*** cite journal
title=Cyborgs and Space
author=Clynes, Manfred E. and Nathan S. Kline
pages=26–27 and 74–75

* cite web|accessmonthday=June 12 |accessyear=2005
title=Cyborg Systems
work=ISTF Brochures

* cite web|accessmonthday=June 12 |accessyear=2005
title=Frequently Asked Questions about Transhumanism
work=Futurist Transhuman Think Tank

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