name = Jackal
image_width = 250px
image_caption = A black-backed jackal in Masaai Mara
phylum = Chordata
genus = "
genus_authority = in part
subdivision_ranks = Species
subdivision = """"""
range_map_width = 250px
A jackal (from Turkish "çakal", via Persian "shaghal" ultimately from
Sanskrit"sṛgālaḥ" [ [http://www.bartleby.com/61/23/J0002300.html American Heritage Dictionary - Jackal entry] ] [ [http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=jackal Online Etymology Dictionary - Jackal entry] ] ) is a member of any of three (sometimes four) small to medium-sized species of the family Canidae, found in Africa, Asiaand southeastern Europe. [Ivory, A. 1999. "Canis aureus" (On-line), Animal Diversity Web. Accessed January 18, 2007 at http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/site/accounts/information/Canis_aureus.html.] Jackals fill a similar ecological niche to the coyotein North America, that of predatorsof small to medium-sized animals, scavengers, and omnivores. Their long legs and curved canine teethare adapted for hunting small mammals, birds and reptiles. Big feet and fused leg bones give them a long-distance runner's physique, capable of maintaining speeds of 16km/h (10mph) (just over 6 min/mile) for extended periods of time. They are nocturnal, most active at dawn and dusk.
In jackal society the
social unitis that of a monogamous pair which defends its territory from other pairs. These territories are defended by vigorously chasing intruding rivals and marking landmarks around the territory with urineand feces. The territory may be large enough to hold some young adults who stay with their parents until they establish their own territory. Jackals may occasionally assemble in small packs, for example to scavenge a carcass, but normally hunt alone or as a pair.
Use in slang
All species of jackal are capable predators (all three hunt rodents and small mammals regularly, with the golden and black-backed species known to hunt poisonous snakes, large ground birds such as bustards, and mammals as large as young antelope). However, their popular image as scavengers has resulted in a negative public image.
* The expression "jackalling" is sometimes used to describe the work done by a subordinate in order to save the time of a superior. (For example, a junior lawyer may peruse large quantities of material on behalf of a barrister.) This came from the tradition that the jackal will sometimes lead a lion to its prey. In other languages, the same word is sometimes used to describe the behavior of persons who try to scavenge scraps from the misfortunes of others; for example, by looting a village from which its inhabitants have fled because of a disaster.
Nonviolent Communication, "jackal language" refers to communication that labels, judges, and criticizes.
*The New Encyclopedia of Mammals "edited by" David Macdonald, Oxford University Press, 2001; ISBN 0-19-850823-9
*Cry of the Kalahari, by Mark and Delia Owens, Mariner Books, 1992.
*The Velvet Claw: A Natural History of the Carnivores, by David MacDonald, BBC Books, 1992.
*Foxes, Wolves, and Wild Dogs of the World, by David Alderton, Facts on File, 2004.
*Bardi - shapechanging spirit in
Trebizond folklore(feminine jackal)
Anubis- Egyptian god with the head of a jackal
* [http://www.awf.org/wildlives/144 Jackal: Wildlife summary from the African Wildlife Foundation]
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