- Grip strength
Grip strength is the
forceapplied by the hand to pull on or suspend from objects and is a specific part of hand strength. Optimum-sized objects permit the hand to wrap around a cylindrical shape with a diameter from one to three inches. Stair rails are an example of where shape and diameter are critical for proper grip in case of a fall. Other grip strengths that have been studied are the hammer and other hand tools. In applications of grip strength, the wrist must be in a neutral position to avoid developing cumulative trauma disorders (CTD's).
Grip strength is a general term also used by strength athletes, referring to the muscular power and force that they can generate with their
hands. In athletics, it is critical for rock climbers and in competitions such as the World's Strongest Man. Grip strength trainingis also a major feature in martial arts, and can be useful in various professions where people must work with their hands.
Types of grip
The hand is an amazing human instrument, and can be used to grip objects in several ways. These different ways, and different types of grip strength, are typically quantified based on the way the hand is being used.
The crush grip is what is most commonly thought of as "grip". It involves a
handshake-type grip, where the object being gripped rests firmly against the palm and all fingers. A strong crush grip is useful in bone-crushing handshakes or for breaking objects with pressure.
In a pinch grip, the
fingers are on one side of an object, and the thumbis on the other. Typically, an object lifted in a pinch grip does not touch the palm. This is generally considered a weaker grip position. The pinch grip is used when grabbing something like a weight plate or lifting a sheet of plywood by the top edge.
A support grip typically involves holding something, such as the handle of a bucket, for a long time. This type of strength is epitomized by the "
Farmer's walk", where the bucket is filled with sandor water, and carried over a long distance. A great deal of muscular enduranceis necessary to have a good carrying grip.
There has been extensive medical and ergonomic research looking at grip strength. This has led to the generation of normative data Average values exist for both men and women. [Grip and Pinch Strength: Normative Data for Adults Virgil Mathiowetz, MS, OTR, Nancy Kashman, OTR, Gloria Volland, OTR, Karen Weber, OTR, Mary Dowe, OTS, Sandra Rogers, OTS [http://www.bleng.com/pdf/grip1.pdf] ] Averages also exist for different types of grip in different positions. [ Effects of interface factors on the handgrip and pinchgrip force exertion capabilities, muscular contraction speed and endurance Winson W.S. LO, Alan H.S. CHAN, Michael K.H. LEUNG [http://cyberg.wits.ac.za/cyberg/sessiondocs/physical/hand/hand3/hand3.htm] ]
Grip strength is often used in medicine as a specific type of
hand strength. The purpose of this testing is diverse, including to diagnose diseases, to evaluate and compare treatments, to document progression of muscle strength, and to provide feedback during the rehabilitation process as a measure indicating the level of hand function. For example, it is used to indicate changes in hand strength after hand surgery or after a rehabilitation program. By asking subjects to maintain a maximum contraction for longer periods, it can be used as a measure of fatigue. It is also able to predict a decline in function in old age. ["Midlife Hand Grip Strength as a Predictor of Old Age Disability" Taina Rantanen, PhD; Jack M. Guralnik, MD, PhD; Dan Foley, MSc; Kamal Masaki, MD; Suzanne Leveille, PhD; J. David Curb, MD; Lon White, MD JAMA. 1999;281:558-560. [http://jama.ama-assn.org/cgi/content/full/281/6/558] ] Since the above-mentioned grips involve the action of a large number of different joints and muscle groups, grip strength is not always very sensitive to measure individual muscle groups in medicine. For this purpose, dynamometers have been developed that provide more specific information on individual muscles in the hand such as the Rotterdam Intrinsic Hand Myometer (RIHM). [ [http://www.handweb.eu/RIHM/ RIHM ] ] [ [http://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pubmed&pubmedid=18028538 Power grip, pinch grip, manual muscle testing or thenar atrophy – which should be assessed as a motor outcome after carpal tunnel decompression? A systematic review ] ]
Hand grip is an important, though often overlooked, component of strength in sports. However, the grip strength is most often a secondary or auxiliary function of the sport. Sports in which grip strength are included within the secondary focus include the following:
climbing, horse racing, judo, weightlifting, Fencing, and arm wrestling.
As a separate discipline
From their beginnings as odd performances at fairs and circuses, grip feats have recently gained acceptance as a sport in their own right, with competitions being held with increasing regularity. Events include one-arm
deadlift, nail bending, the closing of torsion spring hand grippers, v-bar (vertical bar) lifting, and standardized pinch apparatuses. Other common events may include Rolling Thunder lifts, thickbar deadlifts, and "Blob" lifting.
The major contests are:
*Champion of Champions
*European Grip Championships
*British Grip Championships
*Münsterland Grip Challenge
*Global Grip Challenge
*Loddekopinge Grip Challenge
*Meisterhaft Pinzettenherren Pjasjma
*Australian Grip Championships
*German Grip Championships
*Backyard Bastard Bash
[http://www.davidhorne-gripmaster.com/gripcontestsprevious.html Top 3 results back to 1955]
Exhibitions and feats of strength
Aside from functional uses of a powerful grip, traditional strength feats such as ripping decks of cards or phonebooks in half experienced renewed popularity after Clayton Edgin posted a video tutorial at an online magazine "Heavy Sports". [http://www.heavysports.com/emag/Clay_Edgin/phonebooks.html] [ [http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9HBZdEaWpM YouTube - Phonebook Ripping ] ]
Grip strength training requires a different type of training regimen than other muscular training. The reasons are primarily based on the interplay of the
tendons and muscles and the lack of "down time" or rest that most people's hands get.
It is generally considered that all aspects of the
handmust be exercised to produce a healthyand strong hand. Only working on closing grip will cause an imbalancebetween closing and opening (antagonist) muscles, and can lead to problems such as tendinitisand carpal tunnel syndrome.
Noted grip strength athletes
*John Brookfield, "Mastery of Hand Strength", Ironmind Enterprises, 1995 (ISBN 0-926888-03-X)
*John Brookfield, "The Grip Master's Manual", Ironmind Enterprises, 2002 (ISBN 0-926888-11-0)
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