Jám Feróz

Jám Feróz

Jam Feroz (1508 - 1527) was the last ruler of the Samma dynasty of Sindh. Jám Feróz succeeded his father Jám Nizámuddín at a minor age. Owing to his minority, Daryá Khán, whom the late Jám had called his son, came forward as his guardian. In fact it was through the exertions of Sardar Darya Khan and other chief courtiers of the late Jám that Jám Feróz was put on the throne against the attempts of Saláhuddín, a grandson of Jám Sanjar, who was the first claimant to it. Being thus disappointed Saláhuddín went about inciting people to revolt and causing some other mischief. Ultimately he went to Gujarat to live with his son-in-law Sultán Muzaffar.

Jám Feróz was a young man, and as from the commence­ment the management of the state affairs was in the hands of his guardian he spent his time in his harem and seldom went out. Whenever he went out he gave him­self up to the enjoyment of the songs and dances of dancing girls and the jokes of jesters. In his time the Sammahs and their Kháskhelís (slaves) troubled the ordinary people very much, and if Daryá Khán checked them they spoke ill of him. Daryá Khán was therefore obliged to resign his post and to come to Káhán, which was his Jágír. In that village lived the most learned men of the time, Makhdúm Abdul Azíz Abharí, Maoláuá Asíruddín Abharí and his son Maoláná Muhammad. They had come from Herát in 928 A H. (1521 A.D.) when king Ismáíl was expelled. These savants had since been teaching the ignorant and improving the manners and morals of the people in general. Maoláná Asíruddín was well read in the religious law and had written many books on history and other learned sciences. He had written commentaries on many difficult books. He died also at Káhán where his tomb is still visited by people.

In short, owing to the misbehaviour of Jám Feróz and his disregard of state affairs, the people wrote a letter to Saláhuddín informing him that Jám Feróz was often indifferent to their wishes and wants, that Daryá Khán, who was the best manager of affairs had also left him and gone to Káhán and that it was a good opportunity for him to come. When Saláhuddín got this letter from the people of Tattá, he showed it to Sultán Muzaffar, king of Gujrát, who sent him with a large army to Tattá. He arrived near the place after hurried marches and crossed oyer to the town. Meanwhile the people managed to take Jám Feróz out of the town by another way. Thus Jám Saláhuddín quietly went and occupied the throne. The Kháskhelís captured Jám Feróz and would not release him until they got a large sum of money. His mother then brought Jám Feróz to Daryá Khán at Káhán, where in his presence he repented of his past doings and asked his pardon. Daryá Khán remembered his old privileges and determined to move in the matter. He began to collect an army and soon the people of Bakhar and Sehwán assembled under Jám Feróz’s standard. The tribes of Balóch also turned towards him.

Having thus arrayed his forces Daryá Khán proceeded to meet Jám Saláhuddín. The latter wanted to anticipate his adversary, but his wazír Hájí advised him to remain where he was and to depute him to go and fight with his enemy. Jám Saláhuddín agreed to this proposal. Shortly after this the battle commenced and many a brave soldier was killed on both sides. After all Daryá Khán was defeated and his army fled. Wazír Hají, while still on his horse, wrote a letter to his master informing him of his victory. As it was night, he could not pursue the flying forces of the enemy. The messengers with the letters fell into the hands of Daryá Khán, who instantly prepared other letters of a different nature on behalf of wazír Hají containing the news of the defeat of Saláh­uddín’s army and the advice that as the enemy was strong, he (Saláhuddín) should leave Tattá with his family and children and that he would meet him at the village of Cháchikán.* On receipt of these letters, Jám Saláhuddín left the place and crossed the river on the 9th of Ramazan without waiting to break the fast, which he had observed in that holy month. He was thus finally defeated and deprived of his kingdom. The period of his reign was 8 months. Latterly when the Jám met Hají wazír and the latter reproachingly enquired the reason of his abruptly leaving his capital, Jám Saláhuddín produced the letter he had received and showed it to him. Hají in Surprise denied the fact of having written it. They at once understood that Daryá Khán had played the trick. For this they felt much annoyed but it was too late now and they suffered great remorse.

Daryá Khán pursued them to several stages, and then returning, he brought Jám Feróz to Tattá on the holiday of Ramazán Íd and offered joint prayers at the public prayer-ground. From that time Jám Feróz continued to reign quietly for several years.

Though Jám Feróz reigned undisturbed now, he enter­tained secret fears of Daryá Khán. As a precautionary measure he enlisted in his service Kíbak Arghún and a large number of men belonging to the tribes of Mughuls, who had during his reign, left Sháhbeg Arghún and came to Tattá. Jám Feróz gave them the quarter of the town, called Mughal-Wárah to live in. He secretly flattered himself for his policy in securing the services of intrepid men to check Daryá Khán, but he never for a minute imagined what ruin these very men were destined to bring on him. For, it was through some of these men that Sháhbeg Arghún was induced to invade and conquer Sind in 926 A.H. (1519 A.D), which resulted in the displace­ment of the Sammah dynasty of rulers by that of Arghún.



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