Principles of War

Principles of War

The Principles of War were tenets originally proposed by Carl von Clausewitz in his essay "Principles or War" [ [] , Gatzke] , and later enlarged in his book, "On War". Since the mid-19th century due to the influence of the Prussian Army they have become a guide for many military organizations to focus the thinking of military commanders and political leaders toward concepts and methods of successful prosecution of wars and smaller military operations. Although originally concerned with strategy, grand tactics and tactics, due to the changing nature of warfare and military technology, since the interwar period the principles are largely applied to the strategic decision-making, and in some cases to operational mobility of forces.


The initial essay dealt with the tactics of combat, and suggested the following general principles:
* discover how we may gain "a preponderance of physical forces" and "material advantages" at "the decisive point"
* to calculate "moral factors"
* make the "best use of the few means" at our disposal
* never lack "calmness and firmness"...without this firm resolution no great results can be achieved in the most successful war
* always have "the choice between the most audacious and the most careful solution" military leader has ever become great without "audacity"

Based on the above, Clausewitz went on to suggest principles for tactics, the scale of combat that dominated European warfare at the time:
* The Defence
* The Offense
* The Use of Troops
* The Use Of Terrain
* forces are more effective in a concentric than in a parallel attack - attack concentrically without having decisive superiority in an engagement
* always seek to envelop that part of the enemy against which we direct our main attack
* cut off the enemy from his line of retreat

Clausewitz also included in the essay general principles of strategy by saying that Warfare has three main objects:

* (a) To conquer and destroy the armed power of the enemy - always direct our principal operation against the main body of the enemy army or at least against an important portion of his forces
* (b) To take possession of his material and other sources of strength, and - direct our operations against the places where most of these resources are concentrated
* (c) To gain public opinion - won through great victories and the occupation of the enemy's capital

* use our entire forces with the utmost energy
* the decisive point of attack
* never to waste time
* Surprise plays a much greater role in strategy than in tactics
* pursuit
* forces concentrated at the main point
* an attack on the lines of communication takes effect only very slowly, while victory on the field of battle bears fruit immediately
* In strategy, therefore, the side that is surrounded by the enemy is better off than the side which surrounds its opponent, especially with equal or even weaker forces
* To cut the enemy's line of retreat, however, strategic envelopment or a turning movement is very effective
* be physically and morally superior
* stores of supplies, on whose preservation operations absolutely depend
* The provisioning of troops is a necessary condition of warfare and thus has great influence on the operations
* independent action

Strategic Defense
* Politically speaking defensive war is a war which we wage for our independence

Strategic Offense
* The strategic offensive pursues the aim of the war directly, aiming straight at the destruction of the enemy's forces

20th century theory

Applied to specific forms of warfare, such as naval warfare, Corbett argued that

By maritime strategy we mean the principles which govern a war in which the sea is a substantial factor. [p.15, Corbett]

National variations

British principles of war

The UK uses 10 principles of war, as taught to all officers of the Royal Navy, British Army, and Royal Air Force:

; Selection and Maintenance of the Aim: Define the end state and ensure that all strategy is directed toward achieving it.

; Concentration of Force: Make the best use of military power to achieve the commander's aims by overwhelming the enemy's military capacity.

;Economy of Effort: Make efficient use of forces, conserving energy and materiel to prevent unnecessary depletion.

; Maintenance of Morale: Prevent one's own forces from losing the will to fight.

; Offensive Action: Maintain operational tempo by attacking the enemy.

; Flexibility: Be able to respond to unexpected changes or attacks and be able to modify one's plans accordingly.

; Co-Operation: Ensure that the maritime, land and air components work in unison to achieve the end state.

; Security: Prevent the enemy from benefiting from lapses in operational security at all stages of the military process.

; Surprise: Seize the initiative by attacking the enemy when, where and how he least expects it.

; Sustainability: Support, fuel and guide forces to maintain operational capability.

These principles of war are commonly used by the armed forces of Commonwealth countries such as Australia. "Principles of War" was also a book published in 1969 for the Japan Self-Defense Forces. [ [] , West] It outlines the basic military principles and strategies by which the Japanese army was to operate. The book was used for most military exams in Japan. The book backs up all military principles with historical examples.

Principles of war in the Soviet Union and Russia

Soviet adoption of the principles of war is considered a part of Military Art, and is therefore a system of knowledge that is

the theory and practice of preparing and conducting military operations on the land, at sea, and in the air. [p.7, Glantz]
A such it includes the following principles [pp.7-8, Glantz]
* High combat readiness
* surprise, decisiveness and active seeking to secure the initiative
* full use of all means of combat
* coordination and interaction of all types and branches
* decisive concentration
* simultaneous attack in depth
* full use of morale-political factor
* firm and continuous command and control
* inexorability and decisiveness during the mission
* security of combat operations
* timely restoration of troop combat readiness

The Soviet principles of military science, from "Soviet AirLand Battle Tactics" ISBN 0-89141-160-7. Similar principles continue to be followed in CIS countries.

* "Preparedness" – The ability to fulfill missions under any conditions for starting or the conduct of war.
* "Initiative" – Utilizing surprise, decisiveness, and aggressiveness to continuously strive to achieve and retain the initiative. Initiative, in this sense describes efforts to fulfill the plan in spite of difficulties. This is in contrast to the western usage of the term which implies problem-solving and improvisation in order to deal with changed circumstances.
* "Capability" – Full use of the various means and capabilities of battle to achieve victory.
* "Cooperation" – Coordinated application of and close cooperation between major units of the armed forces.
* "Concentration" – Decisive concentration of the essential force at the needed moment and in the most important direction to achieve the main mission.
* "Depth" – Destruction of the enemy throughout the entire depth of their deployment.
* "Morale" – Use of political and psychological factors to demoralize opponents and break their will to resist.
* "Obedience" – Strict and uninterrupted obedience. Orders are to be followed exactly and without question. Commanders are expected to directly supervise subordinates in a detailed manner in order to ensure compliance.
* "Steadfastness" – Subordinate commanders are to carry out the spirit and the letter of the plan.
* "Security" – Security complements surprise. All aspects of security, from deception and secrecy, to severe discipline of subordinates who through action or inaction allow information to fall into the hands of the enemy are to be vigorously carried out.
* "Logistics" – Restoration of reserves and restoration of combat capability is of paramount concern of the modern, fast paced battlefield.

Thus it can be seen that in Military art, the Soviet and Western systems are similar, but place their emphasis in wildly differing places. Western systems allow more control and decision-making at lower levels of command, and with this empowerment comes a consistent emphasis. Offensive, mass, and maneuver principles for the western commander all place a sense of personal responsibility and authority to ensure these principles are followed by appropriate action. In contrast the Soviet system stresses preparedness, initiative, and obedience. This places more responsibility at the better prepared and informed centers of command, and provide more overall control of the battle.

The Russian principles of military art, as interpreted by the US Army in the Field Manual 100-61, 1998 emphasise:
* "High combat readiness"
* "Surprise"
* "Aggressiveness and decisiveness"
* "Persistence and initiative"
* "Combined arms coordination and joint operations"
* "Decisive concentration of forces"
* "Deep battle or deep operations"
* "Information warfare"
* "Exploitation of moral-political factors"
* "Firm and continuous command and control"
* "Comprehensive combat support"
* "Timely restoration of reserves and combat potential"

United States principles of war

The United States Armed Forces use the following nine principles of war in training their officers:

* "Objective" – Direct every military operation toward a clearly defined, decisive and attainable objective. The ultimate military purpose of war is the destruction of the enemy's ability to fight and will to fight.

* "Offensive" – Seize, retain, and exploit the initiative. Offensive action is the most effective and decisive way to attain a clearly defined common objective. Offensive operations are the means by which a military force seizes and holds the initiative while maintaining freedom of action and achieving decisive results. This is fundamentally true across all levels of war.

* "Mass" – Mass the effects of overwhelming combat power at the decisive place and time. Synchronizing all the elements of combat power where they will have decisive effect on an enemy force in a short period of time is to achieve mass. Massing effects, rather than concentrating forces, can enable numerically inferior forces to achieve decisive results, while limiting exposure to enemy fire.

* "Economy of Force" – Employ all combat power available in the most effective way possible; allocate minimum essential combat power to secondary efforts. Economy of force is the judicious employment and distribution of forces. No part of the force should ever be left without purpose. The allocation of available combat power to such tasks as limited attacks, defense, delays, deception, or even retrograde operations is measured in order to achieve mass elsewhere at the decisive point and time on the battlefield. ...

* "Maneuver" – Place the enemy in a position of disadvantage through the flexible application of combat power. Maneuver is the movement of forces in relation to the enemy to gain positional advantage. Effective maneuver keeps the enemy off balance and protects the force. It is used to exploit successes, to preserve freedom of action, and to reduce vulnerability. It continually poses new problems for the enemy by rendering his actions ineffective, eventually leading to defeat. ...

* "Unity of Command" – For every objective, seek unity of command and unity of effort. At all levels of war, employment of military forces in a manner that masses combat power toward a common objective requires unity of command and unity of effort. Unity of command means that all the forces are under one responsible commander. It requires a single commander with the requisite authority to direct all forces in pursuit of a unified purpose.

* "Security" – Never permit the enemy to acquire unexpected advantage. Security enhances freedom of action by reducing vulnerability to hostile acts, influence, or surprise. Security results from the measures taken by a commander to protect his forces. Knowledge and understanding of enemy strategy, tactics, doctrine, and staff planning improve the detailed planning of adequate security measures.

* "Surprise" – Strike the enemy at a time or place or in a manner for which he is unprepared. Surprise can decisively shift the balance of combat power. By seeking surprise, forces can achieve success well out of proportion to the effort expended. Surprise can be in tempo, size of force, direction or location of main effort, and timing. Deception can aid the probability of achieving surprise. ...

* "Simplicity" – Prepare clear, uncomplicated plans and concise orders to ensure thorough understanding. Everything in war is very simple, but the simple thing is difficult. To the uninitiated, military operations are not difficult. Simplicity contributes to successful operations. Simple plans and clear, concise orders minimize misunderstanding and confusion. Other factors being equal, parsimony is to be preferred.

Officers in the U.S. Military sometimes use the acronyms "MOOSE MUSS", "MOUSE MOSS", or "MOM USE SOS" to remember the first letters of these nine principles.

There is a debate within the American military establishment to adopt flexibility as the tenth principle of war. Frost [p.iii, Frost] argues that the concept of flexibility should be integrated with America's warfighting doctrine.

Many, however, hold that the principle of Simplicity implicitly includes flexibility. One of the oldest dictum states that the simple plan is the flexible plan.

In 2007, Armed Forces Journal published a proposal by van Avery, "12 New Principles of War" [ [] , van Avery ] , to completely overhaul and expand the U.S. principles of war from nine to thirteen. The article was subsequently forwarded to the Joint Chiefs of Staff by Air Force Chief of Staff General Moseley and an effort to overhaul current U.S. doctrine was initiated using van Avery's framework.

Canadian Forces

The Canadian Forces principles of war/military science are defined by the Royal Military College of Canada or [ Canadian Forces College Web Site] to focus on "principles of command", "principles of war", "operational art and campaign planning", and "scientific principles".

* "principles of command" – Lead By Example; Know Your Cadets And Promote Their Welfare; Develop Leadership Potential; Make Sound And Timely Decisions; Train Cadets As A Team; Communicate Ideas Clearly; Keep Cadets Informed Of All Activities And New Developments; Take Initiatives; Know Yourself And Pursue Self-Improvement; Treat Cadets As You Wish To Be Treated

* "principles of war" – Selection and maintenance of the aim; maintenance of morale; offensive action; surprise; security; concentration of force; economy of effort; flexibility; co-operation; and administration.

* "operational art and campaign planning" – the organization and synchronization of the planning process and maritime, land and air forces.

* "scientific principles" – involved in military reconnaissance, surveillance, and target acquisition in the context of military operations.

Peoples Republic of China

The military principles of war of the People's Liberation Army were loosely based on those of the Soviet Union until the 1980s when a significant shift begun to be seen in a more regionally-aware, and geographically-specific strategic, operational and tactical thinking in all services. The PLA is currently influenced by three doctrinal schools which both conflict and complement each other: the People's war, the Regional war, and the Revolution in military affairs that led to substantial increase in the defence spending and rate of technological modernisation of the forces.

* People's war – which is derived from the Maoist notion of warfare as a war in which the entire society is mobilized

* Regional war – which envisions future wars to be limited in scope and confined to the Chinese border

* Revolution in military affairs – which is a school of thought which believes that technology is transforming the basis of warfare and that these technological changes present both extreme dangers and possibilities for the Chinese military.

In recent years, 'Local war under high-tech conditions' has been promoted.

Other uses

These principles can be applied to non-military uses when Unity of command is separated into coordination and reality, Economy of Force is redefined as use of resources, Mass is separated into renewable and non-renewable resources, and relationships are separated from unity of command.

In 1913 Harrington Emerson proposed 12 principles of efficiency [p.3, Emerson] , the first three of which could be related to principles of war: Clearly defined ideals - Objective, Common sense - Simplicity, Competent counsel - Unity of Command.

The some of the twelve non-military principles of efficiency have been formulated by Henry Ford at the turn of the 20th century [pp.122-123, Storper, Scott] , and are suggested to beFact|date=August 2008: objective, coordination, action, reality, knowledge, locations (space and time),things, obtaining, using, protecting, and losing. Nine, ten, or twelve principles all provide a framework for efficient development of any objective

ee also

* Principles of warfare

Citations and notes


* von Clausewitz, Carl, "The most important principles of the art of war to complete my course of instruction for his Royal Highness the Crown Prince" ( _de. Die wichtigsten Grundsätze des Kriegführens zur Ergänzung meines Unterrichts bei Sr. Königlichen Hoheit dem Kronprinzen), 1812 Translated and edited by Hans W. Gatzke as "Principles of War, September 1942, The Military Service Publishing Company
* Emerson, Harrington, "Twelve Principles of Efficiency", Kessinger Publishing, 2003
* Armed Force Journal, Lt. Cmdr Chris van Avery (U.S. Navy), 12 New Principles of War, The Defense News Media Group, July 2007
* West, Joseph, Dr., "Principles of War: A Translation from the Japanese", U.S. ARMY COMMAND AND GENERAL STAFF COLLEGE, FORT LEAVENWORTH, KANSAS, 1969 []
* Frost, Robert S., Lt.Col. (USAF), The growing imperative to adopt "flexibility" as an American Principle of War, Strategic Studies Institute, U.S. Army War College, Carlisle, PA, October 15, 1999 []
* Storper, Michael & Scott, Allen John, "Pathways to industrialization and regional development", Routledge, 1992
* Corbett, Julian Stafford, Sir, "Some Principles of Maritime Strategy", London, 1911, US Naval Institute Press, 1988 (The Project Gutenberg eBook [] )

* Glantz, David, Soviet Military Operational Art: In pursuit of deep battle, Frank Cass, London, 1991

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