Transcript (education)

Transcript (education)

In education, a transcript is an inventory of the courses taken and grades earned of a student throughout a course.


United States

In United States education, a transcript (Cumulative Record File, CRF, Permanent Record, or simply Record) is a copy of a student's permanent academic record which usually means all courses taken, all grades received, all honors received and degrees conferred to a student. A transcript may also contain the number of people in a class, and the average grade of the class. An official transcript is prepared and sent by the issuing school (usually by the Student Registrary or an equivalent) with an original signature of a school official. When students are thinking about changing schools, the cumulative transcripts usually get mailed from school to school. Transcripts usually consist of grades 9-12 when applying to colleges.

European Union

In the European ECTS system, transcripts are called Transcript of Records (ToR), and are used to document the performance of a student over a certain period of time by listing the course units or modules taken, the credits gained, and the grades awarded. The Transcript of Records provides a standard format for recording all study activities carried out by students. It is an essential tool for academic recognition.[1]

Usage in academic transfer

The ECTS Transcript of Records preferably includes, along with the local grades, the ECTS grades of the student. It is used for mobile students at two separate moments. First, it must be issued and sent to the host institution by the home institution for all outgoing students before their departure in order to provide information about the course units/modules that they already have completed and the results obtained. Secondly it must be issued and sent by the host institution to the home institution for all incoming students at the end of their period of study.[1][2]


  1. ^ a b Directorate-General for Education and Culture: ECTS Users' Guide. European Credit Transfer and Accumulation System and the Diploma Supplement, Brussels, 2005, p. 26;
  2. ^ Directorate-General for Education and Culture: What are the key documents of ECTS?

External links

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