Steven Milloy

Steven Milloy

Steven J. Milloy is the "junk science" commentator for FoxNews.com and runs the Web site junkscience.com, which is dedicated to debunking what Milloy labels "faulty scientific data and analysis." He is a self-described libertarian, in the American sense of the term. [ [http://frontpagemagazine.com/Articles/Read.aspx?GUID=1C69753A-99E2-4CBC-9F11-5FDFCFAC75FF Taking Out the Junk (Science)] , Interview in FrontPageMagazine.com, May 12, 2008.]

Among the topics Milloy has addressed are what he believes to be false claims regarding DDT, global warming, Alar, breast implants, secondhand smoke, ozone depletion, and mad cow disease. [http://www.junkscience.com/define.htm Milloy's Website, junkscience.com] , accessed 20 Sept 2006.] Milloy also runs CSRWatch.com, which monitors and criticizes the corporate social responsibility movement. From the 1990s until the end of 2005, he was an adjunct scholar at the libertarian Cato Institute, which hosted the JunkScience.com site. He is currently an adjunct scholar at the Competitive Enterprise Institute. Milloy is head of the Free Enterprise Action Fund, a mutual fund he runs with former tobacco executive Tom Borelli. He also operates the Advancement of Sound Science Center, a non-profit organization which is critical of environmental science, from his home in Potomac, Maryland. Milloy has authored four books.

Milloy's close financial and organizational ties to tobacco and oil companies have been the subject of criticism from a number of sources, as Milloy has consistently criticized the science linking secondhand smoke to health risks and human activity to global warming. [http://www.tnr.com/doc.mhtml?i=20060206&s=thacker020606 "Smoked Out: Pundit For Hire"] , published in "The New Republic", accessed 20 Sept 2006. Also [http://www.freepress.net/news/print.php?id=13581 available without subscription] at FreePress.net.] [http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/2000Q3/junkman.html PRWatch.org article detailing Milloy's ties to the tobacco industry] , accessed 23 Sept 2006.] cite web|url=http://www.ucsusa.org/news/press_release/ExxonMobil-GlobalWarming-tobacco.html|title=Scientists' Report Documents ExxonMobil’s Tobacco-like Disinformation Campaign on Global Warming Science|date=3 January 2007|publisher=Union of Concerned Scientists|accessdate=2007-01-11] [http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2005/05/some_like_it_hot.html Some Like It Hot, "Mother Jones" article on Milloy] ]

Educational background

Milloy holds a B.A. in Natural Sciences from Johns Hopkins University, a Master of Health Sciences in Biostatistics from the Johns Hopkins University School of Hygiene and Public Health, a Juris Doctor from the University of Baltimore, and a Master of Laws from the Georgetown University Law Center. [http://www.junkscience.com/Junkman.html Milloy's history and C.V., from his website junkscience.com] , accessed 20 Sept 2006.]

Career

According to his website, in 1994, Milloy was project leader of the Regulatory Impact Analysis Project, Inc. for the U.S. Department of Energy. The Cato Institute, where he was listed as an adjunct scholar, published his work from 1995 to 2005. Milloy began his criticism of "Junk science" as president of the Environmental Policy Analysis Network in 1996. In March 1997, Milloy became president of the Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC), which later became the Advancement of Sound Science Center. [ [http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/esthag-w/2005/may/business/pt_junkscience.html] .] He has been a correspondent for Fox News since 2002.

Junk science

Milloy has popularized the use of the term "junk science" in public debate, which he defines as "faulty scientific data and analysis used to advance special and, often, hidden agendas." According to Milloy, "the junk science 'mob' includes: The MEDIA, [who] may use junk science for sensational headlines and programming…PERSONAL INJURY LAWYERS, [who] may use junk science to bamboozle juries into awarding huge verdicts," and others. [cite web|url=http://www.junkscience.com/define.html|title=Junk science?|publisher=junkscience.com|accessdate=2007-07-20] Milloy frequently applies the term to climate change science and certain health controversies.

Scientists and science writers have argued the term is used, by Milloy and others, almost exclusively to "denigrate scientists and studies whose findings do not serve the corporate cause," in the words of David Michaels.cite book|last=Michaels|first=David|title=Doubt is Their Product: How Industry's Assault on Science Threatens Your Health|publisher=Oxford University Press|location=New York|date=2008|pages=57|isbn=9780195300673] In an editorial in Chemical and Engineering News, Editor-in-Chief Rudy Baum called Milloy's junkscience.com website "the best known" example of "a right wing effort in the U.S. to discredit widely accepted science, technology and medicine." He went on to label Milloy "a tireless antiscience polemicist" who applies the term "junk science" to "anything that doesn't match his right-wing concept of reality."cite journal|last=Baum|first=Rudy|date=June 9, 2008|title=Defending Science|journal=Chemical and Engineering News|publisher=American Chemical Society|volume=86|issue=37|pages=5|url=http://pubs.acs.org/cen/editor/86/8623editor.html] Along similar lines, an editorial in the "American Journal of Public Health" noted that "... attacking the science underlying difficult public policy decisions with the label of 'junk' has become a common ploy for those opposed to regulation. One need only peruse JunkScience.com to get a sense of the long list of public health issues for which research has been so labeled." [cite journal |author=Samet JM, Burke TA |title=Turning science into junk: the tobacco industry and passive smoking |journal=American journal of public health |volume=91 |issue=11 |pages=1742–4 |year=2001 |pmid=11684591 |doi=]

econdhand smoke

Milloy has criticized research linking secondhand tobacco smoke to cancer, claiming that "the vast majority of studies reported no statistical association." [http://www.junkscience.com/foxnews/fn030901.html "Secondhand Smokescreen,"] By Steven Milloy, March 9, 2001] In 1993, Milloy dismissed an Environmental Protection Agency report linking secondhand tobacco smoke to cancer as "a joke." Five years later Milloy claimed vindication after a federal court criticized the EPA's conclusions. However, the court's finding against the EPA was overturned on appeal.

When the "British Medical Journal" published a meta-analysis confirming a link in 1997, Milloy wrote, "Of the 37 studies, only 7—less than 19 percent—reported statistically significant increases in lung cancer incidence... Meta-analysis of the secondhand smoke studies was a joke when EPA did it in 1993. And it remains a joke today." [http://www.junkscience.com/news/bmjsmoke.html Secondhand Joking, by Steven Milloy] ] When another researcher published a study linking secondhand smoke to cancer, Milloy wrote that she "... must have pictures of journal editors in compromising positions with farm animals. How else can you explain her studies seeing the light of day?"

Links to tobacco industry

While at FoxNews.com, Milloy has continued to criticize claims that secondhand tobacco smoke causes cancer. However, with the release of confidential tobacco industry documents as part of the Tobacco Master Settlement Agreement, the objectivity of Milloy's stance on secondhand smoke has been questioned. Based on this documentation, journalists Paul D. Thacker and George Monbiot, as well as the Union of Concerned Scientists and others, have contended that Milloy is a paid advocate for the tobacco industry. [ [http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/2000Q3/junkman.html PRWatch.com article describing the financial links between Milloy and the tobacco industry] , accessed 20 Sept 2006.]

Milloy's junkscience.com website was reviewed and revised by a public relations firm hired by the R. J. Reynolds Tobacco Company. [http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/syq70d00 Activity Report, R.J. Reynolds Tobacco Co., December 1996, describing input from R.J.R. Tobacco's P.R. firm into Milloy's junkscience website] . From the [http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/ Legacy Tobacco Documents Library] at the University of California, San Francisco. Accessed 5 October 2006.] Milloy also worked as executive director of The Advancement of Sound Science Coalition (TASSC), a "front group" established in 1993 by Philip Morris and its public relations firm "to expand and assist Philip Morris in its efforts with issues in targeted states." [ [http://www.pmdocs.com/PDF/2045655935_5937_0.PDF Philip Morris 1994 Budget Draft] , available at the [http://www.pmdocs.com Philip Morris Document Archive] . Accessed 5 October 2006.] cite journal |author=Ong EK, Glantz SA |title=Tobacco industry efforts subverting International Agency for Research on Cancer's second-hand smoke study |journal=Lancet |volume=355 |issue=9211 |pages=1253–9 |year=2000 |pmid=10770318 |doi=10.1016/S0140-6736(00)02098-5] Philip Morris memos describe "utilizing TASSC as a tool in targeted legislative battles"; [ [http://tobaccodocuments.org/pm/2024233698-3702.html?pattern=APCO+TASSC#images Letter from Margery Kraus, president of TASSC, to Vic Han, Director of Communications for Philip Morris, dated 23 September 1993] . Accessed 5 October 2006.] a 1994 Philip Morris memo listed TASSC among its "Tools to Affect Legislative Decisions". [ [http://www.pmdocs.com/PDF/2046847121_7137_0.PDF Philip Morris Corporate Affairs Budget Presentation, 1994] , from the [http://www.pmdocs.com Philip Morris Document Archive] . Accessed 5 October 2006.] According to its 1997 annual report, TASSC "sponsored" junkscience.com. [ [http://ltdlimages.library.ucsf.edu/imagesa/a/n/y/any77d00/Sany77d00.pdf#search=%22edwards%20j%20gordon%22 "Annual Report - 1997"] , Steven Milloy, January 7th, 1998. Document accessed at [http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/ Legacy Tobacco Documents Library] on July 7, 2007.]

"The New Republic" reported that Milloy, who is presented by Fox News as an independent journalist, was under contract to provide consulting services to Philip Morris through the end of 2005. In 2000 & 2001, for example, Milloy received a total of $180,000 in payments from Philip Morris for consulting services. [http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/tid/kwk84a00 Philip Morris budget for "Strategy and Social Responsibility", detailing $180,000 in payments to Steven Milloy (pp. 13 & 66)] . Accessed 5 October 2006.] A spokesperson for Fox News stated, "Fox News was unaware of Milloy's connection with Philip Morris. Any affiliation he had should have been disclosed." Milloy's association with the Cato Institute ended shortly afterwards; however, as of March 2008, he continues to write for FoxNews.com, where he is described as a "junk science expert." [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,220341,00.html Milloy column on global warming, published 12 October 2006, in which Milloy is described as a "junk science expert."] Accessed 16 October 2006.] Monbiot wrote: "Even after Fox News was told about the money [Milloy] had been receiving from Philip Morris and Exxon, it continued to employ him, without informing its readers about his interests." [ [http://environment.guardian.co.uk/climatechange/story/0,,1875762,00.html Climate Change: The Denial Industry] , by George Monbiot. Published as an excerpt in "The Guardian" on September 19 2006; accessed July 23 2007.] Thacker wrote:

The American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation similarly stated that "...Milloy has made it his life’s work to deny scientific studies conducted and published by the world’s most reputable and credible scientific agencies... and label their objective evidence as 'junk science'. Milloy has a lucrative and lengthy relationship with the tobacco industry." [http://www.no-smoke.org/pdf/stevenmilloy.pdf] American Nonsmokers' Rights Foundation article on Steven Milloy. Accessed July 26 2007.]

The environment

Milloy has been critical of the Clean Air Act, acknowledging that it has improved air quality but arguing that it has forced Americans to "surrender many freedoms." Milloy argued that "air pollution in the U.S. was more of an aesthetic than a public health problem [in 1970] . That is even more the case today." [ [http://www.cato.org/askourscholars/milloy/milloy-020115-3.html Cato Institute Q&A with Steve Milloy] . Accessed 10 October 2006.]

Milloy maintains the position that "The ozone hole is another area where knowledge is insufficient to draw conclusions. There is no "hole," but only a thinning of the stratospheric ozone layer over the South Pole. The size and depth of the "hole" varies from year to year. No one knows why ... it is unclear what effect CFC releases have had on the Earth's ozone layer." [ [http://www.cato.org/askourscholars/milloy/] ]

Climate Change

Milloy has consistently argued from the position of a global warming skeptic that human activity has little impact on climate change and that regulations to limit greenhouse gas emissions are unwarranted and harmful to business interests. He has recently offered a prize of $500,000 to anyone who can "prove, in a scientific manner, that humans are causing harmful global warming," stating that "JunkScience.com, in its sole discretion, will determine the winner, if any." [ [http://ultimateglobalwarmingchallenge.com/ Ultimate Global Warming Challenge] , a Steven Milloy website. Accessed May 25 2008.]

In 2004, when the Arctic Climate Impact Assessment was released by the Arctic Council and the International Arctic Science Committee, Milloy wrote that the report "pretty much debunks itself." [ [http://www.junkscience.com/fox/milloy111204.html Polar Bear Scare on Thin Ice, by Steven Milloy, FoxNews.com] , 12 Nov., 2004] Milloy's assertions were disputed by the lead author of the study, as well as by climate scientist Stefan Rahmstorf of the Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research, who criticized Milloy for taking "one result out of context and present [ing] unwarranted conclusions, knowing that a lay audience will not easily recognise their fallacy." [ [http://www.realclimate.org/index.php/archives/2004/12/the-arctic-climate-impact-assessment/ RealClimate ] ]

In April 1998 Milloy was part of the Global Climate Science Team (GCST), which was founded in part by ExxonMobil to work out a strategy to influence the media to "understand (recognize) uncertainties in climate science." The Union of Concerned Scientists reported that Milloy helped develop the GCST action plan, which involved "invest [ing] millions of dollars to manufacture uncertainty on the issue of global warming." In 2005, it was reported that non-profit organizations operating out of Milloy's home, and in some cases employing no staff, have received large payments from ExxonMobil during his tenure with Fox News. A Fox News spokesperson stated that Milloy is "... affiliated with several not-for-profit groups that possibly may receive funding from Exxon, but he certainly does not receive funding directly from Exxon."

Milloy is the Executive Director of DemandDebate.com, [ [http://www.prnewswire.com/cgi-bin/stories.pl?ACCT=ind_focus.story&STORY=/www/story/10-01-2007/0004673250&EDATE=MON+Oct+01+2007,+10:50+AM DemandDebate.com Press Release] , "PRNewsWire.com", Oct 1, 2007.] an organization that seeks to eliminate what it calls "bias" in environmental education. [ [http://www.lastvideo.net/video/izQz4I0DgO0/Tom_Borelli_Joins_TYT_for_an_Embarrassing_Interview.htm Interview with Borelli on The Young Turks] , accessed on www.lastvideo.net, July 12, 2007.] A Competitive Enterprise Institute press release says he "coordinated" the group's activities at the recent Live Earth concert in New York, at which a plane circled the event pulling a banner reading, "DON’T BELIEVE AL GORE — DEMAND DEBATE.COM." [ [http://www.cei.org/gencon/003,06028.cfm Bureaucrash and the "Demand Debate" Campaign Crash Live Earth New York] , Competitive Enterprise Institute Press Release, July9th, 2007.]

U.S. Surgeon General

In 1998, Milloy, writing on behalf of TASSC, co-wrote an article which called for the abolition of the position of United States Surgeon General. "We have not had a surgeon general for three years. Has anyone noticed? Is anyone's health at risk," asked the authors. [ [http://www.junkscience.com/news/sgoped.html "An Empty Uniform," by Michael Gough and Steven Milloy] , The Wall Street Journal, 10 February, 1998] [ [http://www.ncpa.org/pd/budget/feb98d.html NCPA Idea House: "Who Needs A Surgeon General?"] ]

DDT

Milloy has campaigned against the 1972 ban on non-public-health uses of DDT in the United States and in favour of wider use of DDT against malaria, which he claims could be largely eliminated if DDT were used more aggressively. He has been particularly critical of Rachel Carson, who, he wrote, "misrepresented the existing science on bird reproduction and was wrong about DDT causing cancer." [ [http://www.junkscience.com/foxnews/fn072800.html At Risk from the Pesticide Myth, by Steven Milloy] , July 28, 2000]

Milloy's junkscience.com web site features "The Malaria Clock: A Green Eco-Imperialist Legacy of Death", [http://www.junkscience.com/malaria_clock.html The Malaria Clock: A Green Eco-Imperialist Legacy of Death] ] which he claims counts up the approximate number of new malaria cases and deaths in the world, most of which he says could have been prevented by the use of DDT. As of June 2007, Milloy's clock stands at more than 94 million dead, 90% of whom are said to have been expectant mothers and children under five years of age. "Infanticide on this scale appears without parallel in human history," writes Milloy. "This is not ecology. This is not conservation. This is genocide."

Critics have argued that the the clock holds Carson "responsible for more deaths than malaria has caused in total," [ [http://www.fair.org/index.php?page=3186 "Rachel Carson, Mass Murderer? The creation of an anti-environmental myth"] , Aaron Swartz, "Extra!", September/October 2007.] a charge that a footnote at the bottom of the malaria clock webpage seems to acknowledge, stating: "Note that some of these cases would have occurred irrespective of DDT use. Note also that, while enormously influential, the US ban did not immediately terminate global DDT use and that developing world malaria mortality increased over time rather than instantly leaping to the estimated value of 2,700,000 deaths per year. However, certain in the knowledge that even one human sacrificed on the altar of green misanthropy is infinitely too many, I let stand the linear extrapolation of numbers from an instant start on the 1st of the month following this murderous ban."

Responding to an opinion column relying on Milloy's arguments, parasitologists Alan Lymbery and Andrew Thompson wrote, in 2004:

The use of DDT...is not banned for public health use in most areas of the world where malaria is endemic. Indeed, DDT was recently exempted from a proposed worldwide ban on organophosphate ["sic"] chemicals.

One of the important factors in declining use of DDT was decreasing effectiveness and greater costs because of the development of resistance in mosquitoes. Resistance was largely caused by the indiscriminate, widespread use of DDT to control agricultural pests in the tropics.

To blame a reduction in DDT usage for the death of 10-30 million people from malaria is not just simple-minded, it is demonstrably wrong. [cite web |url=http://kenethmiles.blogspot.com/2004_02_01_kenethmiles_archive.html#107570569615970184 |title=The UnAustralian |accessdate=2007-06-29 |format= |work=]

In 2006, following a press release by the World Health Organization recommending more extensive use of indoor residual spraying with DDT and other pesticides, Milloy wrote, "It’s a relief that the WHO has finally come to its senses." [ [http://www.foxnews.com/story/0,2933,215084,00.html Day of Reckoning for DDT Foes?, by Steven Milloy, FoxNews.com] , Thursday, September 21, 2006] In 2007, the WHO clarified its position, saying it is "very much concerned with health consequences from use of DDT" and reaffirmed its commitment to phasing out the use of DDT. [http://www.yubanet.com/artman/publish/article_56180.shtml]

Asbestos and the World Trade Center

On September 14 2001, three days after terrorist attacks destroyed the World Trade Center, Milloy wrote that the World Trade Center towers might have stood longer, preventing many casualties, had the use of asbestos fire-resistant lagging not been discontinued during the Towers' construction. [http://www.webcitation.org/5PdVdI80D Article: Asbestos Could Have Saved WTC Lives] , FoxNews.com. Published September 14, 2001.] Milloy's article reported that, "In 1971, New York City banned the use of asbestos in spray fireproofing. At that time, asbestos insulating material had only been sprayed up to the 64th floor of the World Trade Center towers," and cited an expert who questioned the efficacy of the asbestos-free lagging that was used on the steel in the upper floors.

Advocates for banning asbestos were highly critical of the article, questioning his motives and disputing his conclusions. The International Ban Asbestos Secretariat charged him with "insensitivity that is hard to fathom." [ [http://www.btinternet.com/~ibas/lka_science_not_as_we_know.htm#3 Criticism of Milloy's comments by the International Ban Asbestos Secretariat.] Accessed 11 October 2006.]

Laurie Kazan-Allen of the Secretariat wrote:

It takes a certain kind of person to capitalize on a human catastrophe such as the attacks on the World Trade Centre. While the rest of us remained desperate for news, some were plotting how these events could be used to maximum advantage. ... The fact that Milloy chose to make this and other such statements as ground zero was still smouldering shows an insensitivity that is hard to fathom. What decent human being could do anything during those early days but watch and wait as the emergency services worked 24/7 to locate survivors? [ [http://www.btinternet.com/~ibas/lka_science_not_as_we_know.htm#3 Criticism of Milloy for blaming asbestos removal for the WTC collapses, from the International Ban Asbestos Secretariat.] Accessed 16 October 2006.]

Food safety

Responding to criticism of the safety of the food product Quorn by the
Center for Science in the Public Interest (CSPI), Milloy accused CSPI of having an undisclosed relationship with Quorn's main competitor, Gardenburger. Writing for FoxNews.com, Milloy said that "CSPI appears to have an unsavory relationship with Quorn competitor, Gardenburger" and called the CSPI's complaints "unscrupulous shrieking".cite web| url=http://www.undueinfluence.com/milloy.htm| title=Quorn & CSPI: The Other Fake Meat| publisher="Fox News"| date=2002-08-30| author=Steven Milloy| accessdate=2006-05-20] Gardenburger denied Milloy's accusation, stating that Milloy's allegation of an "unsavory relationship" was "untrue and groundless". [cite web | url=http://www.eskimo.com/~rarnold/Scott%20rebuttal.htm | title=Gardenburger rebuttal to: "The Other Fake Meat" by Steven Milloy| author=Scott C. Wallace, CEO of Gardenburger| accessdate=2006-05-20]

Evolution

Milloy's views on evolution are as follows:

quote|Explanations of human evolution are not likely to move beyond the stage of hypothesis or conjecture. There is no scientific way — i.e., no experiment or other means of reliable study — for explaining how humans developed. Without a valid scientific method for proving a hypothesis, no indisputable explanation can exist.

The process of evolution can be scientifically demonstrated in some lower life forms, but this is a far cry from explaining how humans developed.

That said, some sort of evolutionary process seems most likely in my opinion. But there will probably always be enough uncertainty in any explanation of human evolution to give critics plenty of room for doubt. [cite web | url=http://www.cato.org/askourscholars/milloy/milloy-020115-2.html | title=Q and A With Steve Milloy| author=Steve Milloy| accessdate=2007-01-11]

Registration as a lobbyist

The United States Senate Lobby Filing Disclosure Program lists Milloy was as a registered lobbyist for the EOP Group for the years 1998–2000. [http://sopr.senate.gov/cgi-win/m_opr_viewer.exe?DoFn=3&LOB=MILLOY,%20STEVE&LOBQUAL= United States Senate Lobby Filing Disclosure Program, listing Milloy as a lobbyist for the EOP Group from 1998-2000] , accessed 28 June 2006.] The guidebook "Washington Representatives" also listed him as a lobbyist for the EOP Group in 1996. ["Washington Lobbyists", 1996, Columbia Books, Washington DC.] The EOP Group's clients include the American Crop Protection Association (pesticides), the Chlorine Chemistry Council, Edison Electric Institute (fossil and nuclear energy), Fort Howard Corp. (a paper manufacturer) and the National Mining Association. Milloy himself was personally registered as a lobbyist for Monsanto and the International Food Additives Council. [ [http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/1999Q4/avery.html#milloy Saving the Planet With Pestilent Statistics] , by Karen Charman. Published in the PR Watch newsletter, Vol. 6 No. 4 (1999). Accessed June 29 2007.]

Milloy denies ever lobbying, and in a 1998 email response to his registration as a lobbyist under EOP he wrote:

Corporate activism

Milloy and former tobacco executive Tom Borelli run a mutual fund called the Free Enterprise Action Fund (FEAF). The fund has criticised companies that voluntarily adopt high environmental standards. Through the platform of the FEAF, Milloy has criticized a number of other corporations for adopting environmental initiatives:
* The FEAF criticized Microsoft for abandoning the use of PVC in its packing materials. [ [http://www.freeenterpriseactionfund.com/release121305.htm Free Enterprise Action Fund press release, criticizing Microsoft for abandoning the use of PVC in its packing materials.] Accessed 11 October 2006.]
* Milloy accused the Business Roundtable, a pro-business organization of CEO's, of being "silent about current threats to business", adding, "Last September, we warned 18 member company CEOs participating in the BRT’s 'sustainable growth' initiative to stop wasting corporate resources." [ [http://www.freeenterpriseactionfund.com/release111005.htm Free Enterprise Action Fund press release chastising the Business Roundtable for insufficient vigilance in the defense of capitalism.] Accessed 11 October 2006.]
* Milloy and Borelli argued that General Electric is harming its shareholders by launching a program to curtail greenhouse gas emissions. They also accused G.E. of ignoring the input of global warming skeptic groups such as the Cato Institute and the oil-industry-funded Competitive Enterprise Institute in forming their environmental policy. [ [http://www.freeenterpriseactionfund.com/release050206.htm Free Enterprise Action Fund press release criticizing General Electric's environmental policy.] Accessed 11 October 2006.]

FEAF has been criticised by investment analyst Chuck Jaffe as being "an advocacy group in search of assets." Jaffe concludes "Strip away the rhetoric, and you’re getting a very expensive, underperforming index fund, while Milloy and his partner Thomas Borelli get a platform for raising their pet issues." [ [http://business.bostonherald.com/businessNews/view.bg?articleid=122681 "Strange Bedfellows: Politics and Investment Fund", from the Boston Herald. Published 24 Jan 2006.] Accessed 11 October 2006.]

Similarly, Daniel Gross, in a "Slate" magazine article, wrote that FEAF "seems to be a lobbying enterprise masquerading as a mutual fund." Gross noted that Milloy and Tom Borelli, the former head of corporate scientific affairs for Philip Morris, lack any money management experience; he also noted that FEAF had badly underperformed the S&P 500 during its first 10 months of existence. Gross concluded that "...in the short term, it looks like Borelli and Milloy are essentially paying the fund for the privilege of using it as a platform to broadcast their views on corporate governance, global warming, and a host of other issues." [http://www.slate.com/id/2140997/ "Thank You for Investing: A very curious right-wing mutual fund." Article by Daniel Gross from Slate magazine, published 4 May 2006.] Accessed 11 October 2006.]

Responses

Milloy and Borelli have defended Exxon against criticism for funding global warming sceptics and others, though without declaring their own financial interest. In September 2006, Milloy's Junkscience.com site reproduced the following excerpt of a piece by Borelli published in Townhall.com, criticising the British Royal Society:

Quote|Battle for the boardroom — After over 200 years of independence, the British are still trying to direct U.S. public policy. The Royal Society — the British equivalent of the National Academy of Sciences — recently admonished Exxon Mobil for supporting organizations that question the link between man-made greenhouse gas emissions and global warming.

Notwithstanding the offensive nature of a prestigious organization attempting to silence scientific debate, the Royal Society’s letter sheds light on the larger effort employed by agents of the Left to shut-down corporate support for pro-growth political organizations, politicians and policies. By cutting-off the financial supply lines for free-market thought and policies, these agents — labor unions, NGOs, the media — hope to dominate public debate and control public opinion. As these tactics continue to meet with success, liberal policies and politicians will gain a huge strategic advantage.

For those of us interested in promoting pro-growth ideas, loss of corporate support represents a huge threat to sound public policy. There is too much money, power and influence wielded by companies and free-market advocates can’t afford to give up that high ground to the Left. [ [http://www.townhall.com/Columnists/TomBorelli/2006/10/06/battle_for_the_boardroom "Battle For The Boardroom", by Tom Borelli, posted on Junkscience.com.] Accessed 17 October 2006.]

Books

Milloy has written four books:

*"Junk Science Judo: Self-defense Against Health Scares and Scams", Cato Institute, 2001, ISBN 1930865120
*"Silencing Science", Cato Institute, 1999, ISBN 1882577728 (with Michael Gough)
*"Science Without Sense: The Risky Business of Public Health Research", Cato Institute, 1996, ISBN 1882577345
*"Science-Based Risk Assessment: A Piece of the Superfund Puzzle", National Environmental Policy Institute, 1995, ISBN 0964746301

Milloy's junkscience.com site lists positive comments, derived from prepublication reviews of his books "Silencing Science" and "Junk Science Judo", published on the back cover (blurb) of those books. Those cited on junkscience.com are the late Philip Abelson, editor of "Science" from 1962 to 1984, and D.A. Henderson, Dean of the Johns Hopkins School of Public Health from 1977 to 1990. Abelson's review states "Milloy is one of a small group who devotes time, energy and intelligence to the defense of the truth of science."

Others with favourable reviews cited in the blurb of "Junk Science Judo" are Ronald Bailey, Frederick Seitz and John Stossel.

Notes

ee also

*Global Climate Coalition
*American Petroleum Institute

External links

Milloy's Websites

* [http://www.junkscience.com Junkscience.com]
* [http://www.csrwatch.com CSRWatch.com]
* [http://ultimateglobalwarmingchallenge.com/ The Ultimate Global Warming Challenge]

Tobacco Document Archives

* [http://legacy.library.ucsf.edu/ The Legacy Tobacco Documents Library] at the University of California, San Francisco.
* [http://www.pmdocs.com/ The Philip Morris USA Document Site]

News coverage

* [http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/1999Q4/avery.html#milloy "The Trashman Speweth"] and [http://www.prwatch.org/prwissues/2000Q3/junkman.html "How Big Tobacco Helped Create "'the Junkman'"] , at PR Watch
* [http://pubs.acs.org/subscribe/journals/esthag-w/2005/may/business/pt_junkscience.html "The Junkman Climbs to the Top"] , from Environmental Science & Technology, May 11 2005
* [https://ssl.tnr.com/p/docsub.mhtml?i=20060206&s=thacker020606 "Smoked Out"] at "The New Republic" (also [http://www.freepress.net/news/print.php?id=13581 available] at Freepress.net), January 26, 2006
* [http://business.bostonherald.com/businessNews/view.bg?articleid=122681 "Strange bedfellows: Politics and investment fund"] in the "Boston Herald", January 24 2006
* [http://environment.guardian.co.uk/climatechange/story/0,,1875762,00.html "Climate Change, The Denial Industry"] , "The Guardian", September 19 2006
* [http://www.motherjones.com/news/feature/2005/05/some_like_it_hot.html "Some Like It Hot"] , article on Milloy's connection to ExxonMobil from "Mother Jones", May/June 2005
* [http://www.skeptictank.org/hs/tscience.htm "If You Seek the Truth, Don't Trash the Science"] , "Washington Post", by John Schwartz, February 21 1999
* [http://www.exxonsecrets.org/html/personfactsheet.php?id=881 Exxon Secrets: Steven Milloy]


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