- United Nations Security Council Resolution 418
United Nations Security Council Resolution 418, passed on 4 November 1977, imposed a mandatory
arms embargoagainst apartheid South Africa[cite web|url=http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/4247422.html|title=Resolution 418|date=November 4, 1977|publisher= United Nations] . This resolution differed from the earlier Resolution 282, which was only voluntary. The embargo was subsequently tightened and extended by Resolution 591.
The ban had a direct impact in some of the following ways:
* Last minute cancellation of the sale of Aviso corvettes and Agosta submarines by
France.cite journal|url=http://search.sabinet.co.za/images/ejour/contemp/contemp_v31_n3_a15.pdf|title=The South African Navy During The Years of Conflict In Southern Africa, 1966-1989|date=20 April 2007|author=Andre Wessels|accessdate=2008-05-12|publisher= [http://sabinet.co.za Sabinet Online Ltd] ]
* The purchase of Strike Craft from
Israel, some of which had to be built covertly in South Africa instead.
South Africa's inability to purchase modern fighter aircraftto counter the air superiorityof Cuban Mig 23's over the SAAFin the South African Border War. [cite book|title=Days of the Generals|author=Hilton Hamann|date=2001|publisher=Zebra|url=http://books.google.com/books?id=mYgWcHq8lE8C|isbn=1868723402|location=South Africa|accessdate=2008-05-12|pages=p99]
* The growth of the modern day multi-billion dollar South African
The embargo was lifted by Resolution 919 [cite web|url=http://daccess-ods.un.org/TMP/8984326.html|title=Resolution 919|date=May 26, 1994|publisher=
United Nations] following democratic elections in 1994.
Circumvention of the Embargo
The apartheid government worked around the embargo in a number of ways to source military technology and components that it was unable to procure openly. This resulted in
United Nations Security Council Resolution 591being passed in 1986, which tightened up some of the loopholes and extended the embargo.
Many armaments were wholly designed and manufactured in South Africa, as reflected by the growth and export business of
Two notable operations that came to light were:
1984case of the Coventry Four. Four South African businessmen in the UK were found to be operating a front companyon the behalf of Kentronthat was sourcing materielin defiance of the ban.
* The arrest and imprisonment of
Gerald Bullfor developing the G5 howitzerfor Armscor
Dual purpose equipment
Use of foreign specialists
The South African government was able to hire the services of foreign technicians, for example
Israeli specialists who had worked on the Lavi fighter aircraftwere recruited by Atlas Aircraft Corporationto work on the Atlas Cheetahand Atlas CAVA.cite book|title=Isolated States: A Comparative Analysis|last=Geldenhuys|first=Deon|publisher=Cambridge University Press|date=1990]
In somes cases, foreign armaments were simply produced under license in South Africa, as in the case of the Warrior Class Strike Craft and the
R4 assault rifle.
Co-operation with other pariah states
South Africa exchanged military technology with other states in a similar position to itself, notably Israel. [cite web|publisher=
National Security Archive|title=Africa Review|date=1981-06-08|url=http://www.gwu.edu/~nsarchiv/NSAEBB/NSAEBB181/sa25.pdf|accessdate=2008-08-26]
United Nations Security Council Resolution 181
History of South Africa in the Apartheid era
Armscor (South Africa)
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