Free neutron

Free neutron

series=noble gas
atomic mass= [1]
electron configuration=0s0
electrons per shell=0
density gplstp=
melting point K=
melting point C=
melting point pressure=
boiling point K=
boiling point C=
boiling pressure=
triple point K=
triple point kPa=
critical point K=
critical point MPa=
heat fusion=
heat fusion pressure=
heat vaporization=
heat vaporization pressure=
heat capacity=
heat capacity pressure=
vapor pressure 1=
vapor pressure 10=
vapor pressure 100=
vapor pressure 1 k=
vapor pressure 10 k=
vapor pressure 100 k=
vapor pressure comment=
crystal structure=hexagonal close-packed
oxidation states=0
oxidation states comment=
number of ionization energies=0
atomic radius calculated=
covalent radius=
Van der Waal's radius=
magnetic ordering=
thermal conductivity=
speed of sound=
CAS number=
hl=10.2 min

A free neutron is a neutron that exists outside of an atomic nucleus. While neutrons can be stable when bound inside nuclei, free neutrons are unstable and decay with a lifetime of just under 15 minutes (885.7 ± 0.8 s). [ [ Particle Data Group's Review of Particle Physics 2006] ] Because the neutron consists of three quarks, the only possible decay mode without a change of baryon number requires the flavour changing of one of the quarks via the weak nuclear force. The neutron consists of two down quarks with charge -1/3 and one up quark with charge +2/3, and the decay of one of the down quarks into a lighter up quark can be achieved by the emission of a W boson. By this means the neutron decays into a proton (which contains one down and two up quarks), an electron, and an electron antineutrino (antineutrino), with the proton and electron potentially forming a hydrogen atom:

hbox{n} ohbox{p}+hbox{e}^-+overline{ u}_{mathrm{e.

Even though it is not a chemical element, the free neutron is often included in tables of nuclides. It is then considered to have an atomic number of zero and a mass number of one.


Various nuclides become more stable by expelling neutrons as a decay mode; this is known as neutron emission, and happens commonly during spontaneous fission.

Cosmic radiation interacting the earth's atmosphere continuously generates neutrons that can be detected at the surface.

Nuclear fission reactors naturally produce free neutrons; their role is to sustain the energy-producing chain reaction. The intense neutron radiation can also be used to produce various radioisotopes through the process of neutron activation, which is a type of neutron capture.

Experimental nuclear fusion reactors produce free neutrons as a waste product. However, it is these neutrons that possess most of the energy, and converting that energy to a useful form has proved a difficult engineering challenge. This also explains why this form of energy is likely to create around twice the amount of radioactive waste of a fission reactor, but with a short (50-100 years) decay period (as opposed to the 10,000 years for fission waste). [] []

Thermal neutron

A thermal neutron is a free neutron that is Boltzmann distributed with kT = 0.024 eV (4.0×10-21 J) at room temperature. This gives characteristic (not average, or median) speed of 2.2 km/s. The name 'thermal' comes from their energy being that of the room temperature gas or material they are permeating. (see "kinetic theory" for energies and speeds of molecules). After a number of collisions (often in the range of 10–20) with nuclei, neutrons arrive at this energy level, provided that they are not absorbed.

In many substances, thermal neutrons have a much larger effective cross-section than faster neutrons, and can therefore be absorbed more easily by any atomic nuclei that they collide with, creating a heavier — and often unstable — isotope of the chemical element as a result.

Most fission reactors use a neutron moderator to slow down, or "thermalize" the neutrons that are emitted by nuclear fission so that they are more easily captured, causing further fission. Others, called fast breeder reactors, use fission energy neutrons directly.

Cold neutrons

These neutrons are thermal neutrons that have been equilibrated in a very cold substances such as liquid deuterium. These are produced in neutron scattering research facilities.

Ultracold neutrons

Ultracold neutrons are produced by equilibration in substances with a temperature of a few kelvins, such as solid deuterium or superfluid helium. An alternative production method is the mechanical deceleration of cold neutrons.

Fission energy neutron

A fast neutron is a free neutron with a kinetic energy level close to 2 MeV (20 TJ/kg), hence a speed of 28,000 km/s. They are named "fission energy" or "fast" neutrons to distinguish them from lower-energy thermal neutrons, and high-energy neutrons produced in cosmic showers or accelerators. Fast neutrons are produced by nuclear processes such as nuclear fission.

Fast neutrons can be made into thermal neutrons via a process called moderation. This is done with a neutron moderator. In reactors, typically heavy water, light water, or graphite are used to moderate neutrons.

Fusion neutrons can have higher energies such as 14.1 MeV for D-T fusion, or 2.45 MeV for D-D fusion to 3He. See Nuclear fusion#Criteria and candidates for terrestrial reactions for a list.

Intermediate neutrons

A fission energy neutron that is slowing down is often said to have intermediate energy. There are not many non-elastic reactions in this energy region, so most of what happens is just slowing to thermal speeds before eventual capture. Intermediate energy neutrons are a hazard in reactors owing to the existence of a resonance region in the fission cross section of fissile elements. Within this region there exist many local minima and local maxima of probability of causing fission; this means that a reactor operating with a significant population of intermediate neutrons in contact with fuel nuclei could exhibit dangerous transient response. In such reactors, other mechanisms of inherent stability must be provided, such as large hydrogen populations to provide Doppler broadening.

High-energy neutrons

These neutrons have more energy than fission energy neutrons and are generated in accelerators or in the atmosphere from cosmic particles. They can have energies as high as tens of joules per neutron.

ee also

* Neutron radiation
* Neutron scattering
* Neutron temperature
* List of particles
* Nuclear reaction
* Thermal reactor
* Dineutron
* Fast neutron
* Ionizing radiation
* Isotope
* Neutron flux
* Neutron star
* Neutronium
* Tetraneutron
* Neutron generator


*Krane, K. S. (1998) "Introductory Nuclear Physics"
*G. L. Squires (1997) "Introduction to the Theory of Thermal Neutron Scattering"
*M. S. Dewey, D. M. Gilliam, J. S. Nico, M. S. Snow and F. E. Wietfeldt " NIST Neutron Lifetime Experiment"

before=Many nuclear reactions

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