- Work permit
"Work permit" is a generic term for a legal authorization which allows a person to take employment. It is most often used in reference to instances where a person is given permission to work in a country where one does not hold
citizenship, but is also used in reference to minors, who in some jurisdictions require a permit in order to work.
Work Permits in the European Union
Currently, every EU country has a different process for granting work permits to nationals of non-EU countries. To address this issue, the European Commission began work in 1999 on developing an EU-wide process for the entry of non-EU nationals into the work force.cite web |url=http://ec.europa.eu/justice_home/fsj/immigration/fsj_immigration_intro_en.htm |title=Towards a Common European Union Immigration Policy |accessdate=2007-03-03 |publisher=European Commission] In October 2007, they adopted a proposal to introduce a work permit similar to the United States' "Green Card" program, called the "Blue Card". It is similar to the UK's
Highly Skilled Migrant Programme, with the exception that it will require an employment contract in place prior to migration. After two years in the first country, the migrant will be allowed to move and work in another EU country, and can sum the number of years spent in the EU for purposes of residency. This new card will abolish work permits across the EU and centralize the issuing from Brussels.cite web |url=http://ec.europa.eu/ireland/press_office/news_of_the_day/bluecard_en.htm |title=EU Blue Card to encourage highly-qualified non-EU citizens to work in the EU |accessdate=2007-03-03 |publisher=European Commission, Irish Press Office]
Work Permits in the United Kingdom
There are six standard ways to apply for a work permit in the United Kingdom: the Business and Commercial Arrangements, the Training and Work Experience Arrangements, the Sports people and Entertainers Arrangements, Student Internships, GATS, and the Sectors Based Scheme. cite web |url=http://www.workingintheuk.gov.uk/working_in_the_uk/en/homepage/work_permits0/applying_for_a_work.html |title=Working in the UK - Work Permit Arrangements |accessdate=2007-03-03 |publisher=Government of the United Kingdom] Each of these involves its own application process, and generally requires a job offer from a UK employer. The UK has stopped accepting work permits in many other categories.
There is also a scheme for nationals of select countries to work in the UK as Au Pairs.cite web |url=http://www.workingintheuk.gov.uk/working_in_the_uk/en/homepage/schemes_and_programmes/au_pairs.html? |title=Working in the UK - Information about Au Pairs|accessdate=2007-03-03 |publisher=Government of the United Kingdom] This scheme is only for nationals of European Economic Area countries don't need a permit to au pair in the UK.
The UK work permit system is currently being replaced by a new points-based immigration system.
Work Permits in Singapore
In Singapore, the work permit process is managed by the Ministry of Manpower. There are several kinds of work permit, and the type awarded generally depends on the salary range of the job. The "R Pass," or "Work Permit," is for foreigners who make less than $1,800/month. To employ a work permit holder, the employers are subjected to work permit conditions and the employment of foreign manpower act.
In ensuring an efficient process, the Ministry of Manpower has introduced an internet platform for work permit transactions. With the internet portal, the Ministry is able to process the work permit applications within one working day.
cite web |url=http://www.mom.gov.sg/publish/momportal/en/communities/work_pass/work_permit.html |title=About the R Pass |accessdate=2007-03-03 |publisher=Singapore Ministry of Manpower]
The "S Pass" is for foreigners who make more than $1,800/month. To be eligible, the applicant must achieve a minimum score on a points-based application. It takes into account salary, skills (including education), work experience, and the type of job being applied for.cite web |url=http://www.mom.gov.sg/publish/momportal/en/communities/work_pass/s_pass/about_the_s_pass.html |title=About the S Pass |accessdate=2007-03-03 |publisher=Singapore Ministry of Manpower]
The Q Pass is for foreigners making $2,500 or more per month, with recognized qualifications or work experience.The P1 Pass is for foreigners making $3,500 to $7,000 per month, and foreigners making more than $7,000 per month are eligible for the P2 Pass.
Employment permits for minors
In states of the US, a work permit must be obtained by a teenager wishing to procure employment. Similar to national work permits, the idea is that someone has a limited right to work.
In some states, for example
New Jersey, permits are only required for minors 14 and 15 years old, while others such as Massachusettsrequire, at least in theory, work permits for all minors up until they turn 18 years of age. In states that require permits for 16 and 17 year olds, enforcement is not always strict, although sometimes it is. Permits are usually issued through the school system the minor attends, and typically at a minimum, enrollment in high school with regular attendance (no chronic absenteeism, tardiness, or truancy) is required as a condition for obtaining the permit. Some states such as New Yorkand Indianarequire high school students with part time jobs to maintain a certain grade point average. Minors who are working are usually restricted in the number of hours each day or week they are permitted to work as well as the types of jobs they may hold.
* [http://www.in.gov/labor/childlabor/index.html Indiana Teenworker Requirements]
* [http://www.ago.state.ma.us/sp.cfm?pageid=1119 Massachusetts Child Labor Laws]
* [http://www.un.org/esa/population/migration/turin/Turin_Statements/LOWELL.pdf United Nations' Lowell Report on Highly Skilled Mobility]
* [http://www.expatica.com/be/life_in/feature/eu-work-permit-the-blue-card-is-unveiled--45626.html Expatica] EU work permit - the 'blue card' is unveiled
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.