- Shrimp scad
name = Shrimp scad
image_width = 240px
phylum = Chordata
genus = "
species = "A. djedaba "
binomial = "Alepes djedaba"
binomial_authority = (
range_map_width = 240px
range_map_caption = Range of the shrimp scadThe shrimp scad, "Alepes djedaba", (also known as the slender yellowtail kingfish) is a widespread
tropicalmarine fishof the jack family, Carangidae. The shrimp scad is widely distributed in the tropical and subtropical western Indian Oceanand areas of the eastern Pacific Ocean, commonly found on inshore reefs. It has the common body profile of a scad, and may be difficult to differentiate from others in the genus " Alepes". It is one of the larger scads, growing to 40 cm, but often is encountered at much smaller sizes. The shrimp scad is carnivorous, consuming a variety of crustaceans and small fish. It is of moderate importance to fisheriesthroughout its range.
The shrimp scad is one of five species of fish in the scad
genus"Alepes", which itself is one of thirty genera in the jack family Carangidae. The Carangidae are Perciform fishes in the suborder Percoidei. [ITIS | ID = 641941 | taxon = Alepes djedaba | year = 2007 | date = 30 September] A molecular phylogenetic study has confirmed the genus "Alepes" is supported, at least between "A. djedaba" and "A. kleinii" which are closely related. [cite journal | last = Zhu | first = Shi-Hua | coauthors = Zheng, Wen-Juan; Zou, Ji-Xing; Yang, Ying-Chun; Shen, Xi-Quan | title = Molecular phylogenetic relationship of Carangidae based on the sequences of complete mitochondrial cytochrome b gene | journal = Acta Zoologica Sinica | volume = 53 | issue = 4 | pages = 641–650 | date = 2007 | url = http://www.actazool.org/pdftemp/%7B9453C306-9408-413D-A425-232B2AA1F536%7D.pdf | accessdate =2007-11-14 ]
The shrimp scad was first scientifically described by Swedish naturalist
Peter Forsskålfrom a specimen collected in the Red Sea in 1775 under the name "Scomber djedaba", mistaking the species for a true mackerel.cite journal | last = Lin | first = Pai-Lei | coauthors = Shao, Kwang-Tsao | title = A Review of the Carangid Fishes (Family Carangidae) From Taiwan with Descriptions of Four New Records | journal = Zoological Studies | volume = 38 | issue = 1 | pages = 33–68 | date = 1999 | url = http://cat.inist.fr/?aModele=afficheN&cpsidt=10055944 | accessdate = ] A number of taxonomists have since tried to reclassify the species in a more parsimonious genus, with a number of carangid genera proposed including "Selar", " Caranx" and " Atule".cite book | last = Carpenter | first = Kent E. | coauthors = Volker H. Niem (eds.) | title = FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of the Western Central Pacific. Volume 5. Bony fishes part 3 (Menidae to Pomacentridae) | publisher = FAO | date = 2001 | location = Rome | pages = 2684 | url = http://ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/009/y4160e/y4160e00.pdf | isbn = 92-5-104587-9 ] To add to the confusion over the species, the species was redescribed twice after the first naming, once by Cuvier who named it "Caranx kalla", and once by Fowler who proposed "Caranx microbrachium" for the species. "Caranx kalla" was subsequently placed in the genus "Atule", but is now considered, along with "Caranx microbrachium" to be a junior synonym, unacceptable under the ICZNrules and has been discarded.FishBase species | genus = Alepes | species = djedaba | year = 2007 | month = November] The currently accepted name of "Alepes djedaba" was proposed by Gushiken in an extensive review of the carangidae of Japan, identifying a number of morphological features associating it with "Alepes". [cite journal | last = Gushiken | first = S. | title = Revision of the carangid fishes of Japan | journal = Galaxea, Publications of the Sesoko Marine Sciences Center of the University of Ryukyus | volume = 2 | issue = | pages = 135–264 | publisher = | date = 1983 | accessdate = ] Due to the awkward species name, the species is often misspelt as "djeddaba" in the literature.
The shrimp scad has a body profile very similar to other scads and some other carangids, with an oblong, compressed body and dorsal and ventral profiles which are almost evenly convex. The snout is pointed and the eye diameter is nearly equal to the snout length, with an
adiposeeyelid well developed on the posterior half of eye.cite journal | last = Iwatsuki | first = Yukio | coauthors = Seishi Kimura | title = First record of the carangid fish, Alepes djedaba (Forsskhl)from Japanese waters | journal = Ichthyological Research | volume = 43 | issue = 2 | pages = 182–185 | publisher = Springer | location = Japan | date = 1996 | doi = 10.1007/BF02348244 | accessdate =2007-11-14 ] There are two moderately high, separate dorsal fins, the first of which has eight spines, while the second has a single spine followed by 23 to 25 soft rays. The anal fin has two detached spines followed by one spine connected to 18 to 20 soft rays. The anterior section of the lateral lineis strongly curved, containing thirty one to thirty six scales, while the straight section consists of seventy seven to eighty five scutes.
The colour of the body is an overall silver colour, with a green-blue tone on the upper body, while the underside fades to a more white colour. There is a diffuse dusky blotch on margin of operculum which is bordered by a smaller white spot. The spinous dorsal fin, includingthe last dorsal fin spine is blackish or dusky, the soft dorsal fin is blackish or dusky above the scaly sheath and the margin of first to fourth upper soft rays is whitish. The middle portion of the anal fin below the scaly sheath is slightly blackish or dusk. The caudal fin is often a striking yellow, especially when fresh, with the upper caudal lobe often fading to a darker shade. The posterior scutes may also be a yellow - rusty colour, especially after removal from the water. The species can grow to a large size compared to other scads, reaching a maximum known length of 40 cm, but more often seen around 25 cm.
Distribution and habitat
The shrimp scad is distributed throughout the
Indo-Pacificregion from South Africain the west, along the coasts of East Africa, India, Asia, Indonesia, northern Australia, Japanand extending as far east as Hawaii. They are also one of the species involved in the Lessepsian migrationthrough the Suez Canaland inhabit the east coast of the Mediterranean Seaaround Israel, Lebanon and Egypt. [cite journal | last = Taskavak | first = Ertan | coauthors = Bilecenoglu, Murat | title = Length–weight relationships for 18 Lessepsian (Red Sea) immigrant fish species from the eastern Mediterranean coast of Turkey | journal = Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the UK | volume = 81 | issue = 5 | pages = 895–896 | publisher = Cambridge University Press | location = 2001 | date = | doi = 10.1017/S0025315401004805 | accessdate =2007-11-14 ] The species is primarily an inshore inhabitant of reefs and over open sand patches, even in moderately turbid waters, [cite journal | last = Blaber | first = S.J.M. | coauthors = Blaber, T.G. | title = Factors affecting the distribution of juvenile estuarine and inshore fish | journal = Journal of Fish Biology | volume = 17 | issue = 2 | pages = 143–162 | publisher = Blackwell Synergy | date = 1980 | doi = 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1980.tb02749.x | accessdate =2007-11-14 ] often forming large schools. The species has in isolated circumstances also been found close to shore in surf zones in Japan [cite journal | last = Nakane | first = Y. | coauthors = Suda, Y., Ohtomi, J., Hayakawa, Y., Murai, T. | title = Nearshore ichthyofauna in the intermediate sandy beach, Fukiagehama Beach, Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan | journal = Journal of National Fisheries University | volume = 53 | issue = 2 | pages = 57–70 | date = 2005 | accessdate = 2007-11-14 ] and in estuarine waters in South Africa. [cite journal | last = Blaber | first = S.J.M. | coauthors = D.P. Cyrus | title = The biology of Carangidae (Teleostei) in Natal estuaries | journal = Journal of Fish Biology | volume = 173-188 | issue = 22 | pages = 2 | publisher = Blackwell Synergy | date = 1983 | doi = 10.1111/j.1095-8649.1983.tb04738.x | accessdate = 2007-10-23 ] The species is occasionally found in offshore environments, suggesting it can lead a pelagic lifestyle also. [cite journal | last = Ching-Long | first = Lin | coauthors =Ho, Ju-shey | title = Sea lice (Copepoda, Caligidae) parasitic on pelagic fishes of Taiwan | journal = Journal of the Fisheries Society of Taiwan | volume = 28 | issue = 2 | pages = 119–142 | publisher = | date = 2001 | doi = | accessdate =2007-11-14 ]
Biology and fishery
The shrimp scad feeds on a variety of prey, with at least two shifts in diet occurring as the fish mature. Older individuals feed mainly on young fishes, crustaceans like
decapods, ostrocods, amphipods and cladocerans with minor amounts of nematodes, insect body parts and insect larvae taken. Fish within a length range of 150-199 mm and 240-319 mm showed a preference for young fishes, while those in the length range of 200-239 mm primarily consumed ostracods and other crustaceans. There is less food consumed during breeding season, which is indicative of reduced feeding activity during that period. [cite journal | last = Sivakami | first = S | title = Observations on some aspects of biology of Alepes djedaba (Forsskal) from Cochin | journal = Journal of the Marine Biological Association of India | volume = 32 | issue = 1-2 | pages = 107–118 | date = 1990 | accessdate = 2007-11-14 ] Sexual maturityis attained by about 17 cm fork length and spawning is thought to occur in shallow coastal waters.cite book | last = Van der Elst | first = Rudy | coauthors = Peter Borchert | title = A Guide to the Common Sea Fishes of Southern Africa | publisher = New Holland Publishers | date = 1988 | pages = 132 | isbn = 1868253945 ]
The species is of little commercial interest in most countries where it is often considered too small to be worthwhile and is often caught on hook and line tackle and in seines as bycatch. [cite journal | last = Bariche | first = M. | coauthors = N. Alwana and M. El-Fadel | title = Structure and biological characteristics of purse seine landings off the Lebanese coast (eastern Mediterranean) | journal = Fisheries Research | volume = 82 | issue = 1-3 | pages = 246–252 | publisher = Elsevier | date = 2006 | doi = 10.1016/j.fishres.2006.05.018 | accessdate =2007-11-14 ] It is often taken by subsistence fisheries using various traditional gear such as inter-tidal fixed stake traps. [cite journal | last = Al-Baz | first = Ali | coauthors = W. Chena, J.M. Bishopa, M. Al-Husainia and S.A. Al-Ayoub | title = On fishing selectivity of hadrah (fixed stake trap) in the coastal waters of Kuwait | journal = Fisheries Research | volume = 84 | issue = 2 | pages = 202–209 | publisher = Elsevier | date = 2007 | doi = 10.1016/j.fishres.2006.10.022 | accessdate =2007-11-14 ] Around the Asian and Indonesian coasts, larger numbers are taken than anywhere else in its range and it is considered a good eating fish.
* [http://www.fishbase.org/summary/Speciessummary.php?id=1889 Shrimp scad at Fishbase]
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