- Far right in Switzerland
far rightin Switzerlandwas established in the course of the rise of fascismin Europe in the interwarperiod. It was a mostly marginal phenomenon in the Cold War period, excepting a surge of radical right-wing populismduring the early 1970s, and has again attracted some media attention in the 2000s.
World Wars (1914-1945)
Switzerland was one of the least likely countries in Europe to succumb to
fascismas its democracyhad deep roots, it lacked a frustrated nationalism, had a high standard of living, wide distribution of property ownership and a secure economy. [ Stanley G. Payne, "A History of Fascism 1914-1945", London, Routledge, 2001, p. 291] Despite this, before World War IIa number of far right and fascistgroups existed in Switzerland.
The earliest of these was
Eugen Bircher's " Schweizerischer Vaterländischer Verband", established in 1918. Gaining some influential members, it lasted until 1947. It was linked to the " Heimatwehr", an anti-Semiticgroup established in 1925. [Alan Morris Schom, [http://www.wiesenthal.com/site/pp.asp?c=fwLYKnN8LzH&b=243125 'A Survey of Nazi and Pro-Nazi Groups in Switzerland: 1930-1945'] ] Dr. Jakob Lorenz's "Aufgebot Bewegung", formed in 1933, enjoyed some lower middle class support by advocating collaboration with Nazi Germany. Franz Burriadvocated a similar closeness and led a variety of movements including "Bund der Schweizer in Grossdeutschland" (1941), "Nationalsozialistische Schweizerbund" and the "Nationalsozialistische Bewegung in der Schweiz" (both 1942). [Schom, op cit]
By 1937 there were effectively three main language specific groups i.e. the National Front (formed 1933) for German speakers, the "Union Nationale" for French speakers and the "Lega Nazionale Ticinese" for Italian speakers, with the latter two active in Romansh areas. Of these only the National Front managed to gain any real support. [R. Griffin, "The Nature of Fascism", London: Routledge, 1993, p. 129] Other minor, pro-
Nazi, fascist or far right groups that were active included:
* The Swiss branch of the
NSDAPunder Wilhelm Gustloff.
* "Bund für Volk und Heimat" - a
Christianultra-right group under Rudolf Grob, Samuel Haas and Professor Walter Wili.
* "Bund Treuer Eidgenossen Nationalsozialistischer Weltanschauung" - a more avowedly pro-Nazi breakaway from the National Front under former leader
Rolf Henne. This group was superseded by the " Nationale Bewegung der Schweiz" in 1940.
* "Eidgenössische Front" - an anti-Semitic group ran by Heinrich Eugen Wechlin between 1933 and 1938.
* "Eidgenössische Soziale Arbeiter-Partei" - a
Zurich-based group active from 1936 to 1940 under Ernst Hofmann.
* "Faschistischer Bewegung der Schweiz" - the movement of
Benito Mussolinifollower Arthur Fonjallaz. It grew from his previous groups Helvetic Action Against Secret Societies and the "Federation Fasciste Suisse".
* "Katholische Front" and "Front der Militanten Katholiken" - two pro-Nazi
Roman Catholicmovements led by brothers Karl and Fridolin Weder.
* "Nationalsozialistische Schweizerische Arbeitspartei" - a mimetic Nazi group, also known as the "Volksbund", led by Major
Ernst Leonhardt. [Schom, op cit]
A number of pro-
Naziparties and organizations persisted well into World War II. In the course of the war, however, these pro-Nazi became very unpopular and were effectively driven underground, the National Front and its successor group the Eidgenössische Sammlungwere banned in 1943.
Cold War period (1946-1989)
After World War II, far-right politics re-emerged in the guise of
radical right-wing populismagainst " Überfremdung" in the early 1970s, notably orchestrated by James Schwarzenbach. The first surge of right-wing populism subsided in the late 1970s, but it survived in the form of a few far-right fringe parties, the "Nationale Aktion" (1961-1990), a right wing group that attracted a few neo-fascists to its ranks [Griffin, op ict, p. 167] and the "Rebublicans" (1971-1990), in 1990 merged into the " Schweizer Demokraten" and the Freedom Party (founded 1984 as "Autopartei" "automobile party" in a backlash against the emerging Green movement).
A Liberal Ecologist Party also existed for a time, espousing a far right take on
environmentalismthat recalled ecofascism. [griffin, op cit, p. 171]
The end of the war saw the emergence of
neo-Nazismin Switzerland, with the Volkspartei der Schweizof Gaston-Armand Amaudruzthe most important group. A Swiss Nazi Party, also existed at a minor level and during a 1970 trial evidence was heard that it maintained links to Al Fatah. [G. Harris, "The Dark Side of Europe – The Extreme Right Today", Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 1994] François Genoudwas also a member and he helped to maintain links between the group and both Hjalmar Schachtand the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine. [M.A. Lee, " The Beast Reawakens", London: Warner Books, 1998, p. 181]
From a more neo-fascist bent, Switzerland also played host to a revived
Cercle Proudhon, with the group working closely with France's " Groupement de recherche et d'études pour la civilisation européenne". [Griffin, op cit, p. 169]
New Right (1990 to present)
From the mid 1990s, these remaining fringe parties were mostly absorbed by the expanding
Swiss People's Party(SVP), which had initiated a revival of right-wing populism from the late 1980s. The party has variously been identified as "extreme right" [P. Ignazi, "Extreme Right Parties in Western Europe", Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006, p. 234] and "radical right-wing populist", [H-G Betz, 'Xenophobia, Identity Politics and Exclusionary Populism in Western Europe', L. Panitch & C. Leys (eds.), "Socialist Register 2003 - Fighting Identities: Race, Religion and Ethno-nationalism", London: Merlin Press, 2002, p. 198] , reflecting a spectrum of ideologies present among its members. In its far right wing, it includes extremist members such as Ulrich Schlüer, Pascal Junod, who heads a 'New Right' study group and has been linked to Holocaust denialand neo-Nazism and Jean-Jacques Kottelat, who has been legally convicted under anti-racism legislation. [ [http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/asw2000-1/switzerland.htm Antisemitism and Racism in Switzerland 2000-1] ] [ [http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/asw99-2000/switzerland.htm Antisemitism and Racism in Switzerland 1999-2000] ]
By the 2007 federal elections, the expansion of the SVP had reduced the far-right fringe parties to below 3% of the popular vote, including 1.3% for the
Christian right Federal Democratic Union of Switzerland(founded 1975), 0.5% for the regionalist Ticino League(founded 1991) and 0.5% for the Swiss Democrats.
The neo-Nazi and
white power skinheadscene in Switzerland has seen significant growth in the 1990s and 2000s, growing from an estimated number of 200 active individuals in 1990 to 1,200 in 2005 (or from 0.003% to 0.016% of the total population). [ [http://www.fedpol.admin.ch/etc/medialib/data/sicherheit/bericht_innere_sicherheit.Par.0042.File.tmp/d_s01_s92.pdf 2006 report on domestic security] ] This development occurred in parallel with the increasing presence of right-wing populism due to SVP campaigns, and is reflected in the foundation of the Partei National Orientierter Schweizerin 2000, which resulted in an improved organisational structure of the neo-Nazi and white supremacist scene. The PNOS has succeeded in having a member elected to municipal governments in Langenthal in 2004 and Günsbergthe following year. ["Searchlight", June 2005, p. 30]
Swiss Federal Policein 2005 counted 111 right extremist incidents in 2005, estimating that the number of individuals involved in the "right extremist scene" grew by 20% to from ca. 1,000 to 1,200. At the same time, the number of loosely involved sympathisers fell from 700 to 600, so that the overall number of people involved with right extremist activism grew by some 6% from 1,700 to 1,800 people (or 0.024% of the total population). [ [http://www.fedpol.admin.ch/etc/medialib/data/sicherheit/bericht_innere_sicherheit.Par.0038.File.tmp/BISS_2005_d.pdf 2005 report on domestic security] , p. 20.]
Far-right activists briefly won the attention of mainstream media for disrupting the 2005 celebration of the
Swiss national holidayon the Rütli Meadow. The 2006 report [ [http://www.fedpol.admin.ch/etc/medialib/data/sicherheit/bericht_innere_sicherheit.Par.0042.File.tmp/d_s01_s92.pdf 2006 report on domestic security] , p. 20.] reports 109 right extremist incidents, of which 60 involved physical violence (65%). The size of the right extremist scene remains stable at 1,200 active individuals. As opposed to the preceding year, the police reports a significant increase in left extremist incidents, their number rising by 87 to 227, incidents involving physical violence likewise accounting for 65%.
"Bund Oberland", a group associated with the
white power skinhead Blood and Honournetwork has also been active in the country, especially in the distribution of CDs. ["Searchlight", December 2005, p. 22]
A minor Swiss National Party was briefly active under the leadership of David Mulas, dissolved in 2003. [ [http://www.akdh.ch/mulas.htm 'Nationale Partei Schweiz: David Mulas'] ] This group was closely linked to the
National Democratic Party of Germany. [ [http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/asw2000-1/switzerland.htm Antisemitism and Racism in Switzerland 2000-1] ]
Switzerland's status as the world centre of neutrality has meant that it has sometimes been important in international links for fascists and neo-Nazis.
Before the Second World War Switzerland was pivotal in the concept of
Fascism as an international phenomenonas it hosted the International Centre for Fascist Studies (CINEF) and the 1934 congress of the Action Committee for the Universality of Rome (CAUR). [Griffin, op cit, p. 129] Amaudruz's New European Orderrepresented a similar post-war phenomenon from a Swiss base, albeit on a neo-Nazism rather than Italian fascismbasis.
Political extremism in Switzerland
Stiftung gegen Rassismus und Antisemitismus
*de icon [http://www.gra.ch/index.asp GRA]
* [http://www.tau.ac.il/Anti-Semitism/asw2006/switzerland.htm Stephen Roth Institute (2006)] ;far right websites
*de icon [http://www.schweizer-demokraten.ch/ Swiss Democrats website]
*de icon [http://www.freiheits-partei.ch/ Freedom Party website]
*De icon [http://www.pnos.ch PNOS website] ;populist websites
*de icon [http://www.svp.ch/ SVP website] ;antifa websites
*de icon [http://www.antifa.ch/ Swiss Antifa]
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