- Hurricane Noel
Image location=Noel 02 nov 2007 0015Z.jpg
Formed=October 28, 2007
Dissipated=November 2, 2007
Date of beginning of Extratropical transition - completed November 4.
Fatalities=163 direct, 6 indirect
Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Haiti, Cuba, Jamaica, Eastern Florida, Bahamas, Eastern North Carolina, Long Island, Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Maine, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick
2007 Atlantic hurricane season
Hurricane Noel was the fourteenth named storm and sixth hurricane of the
2007 Atlantic hurricane season. Noel formed on October 27 from the interaction between a tropical waveand an upper-level low in the north-central Caribbean Sea. It strengthened to winds of 60 mph (95 km/h) before making landfall on western Haitiand the north coast of eastern Cuba. It turned northward, and on November 1 it attained hurricane status. The hurricane accelerated northeastward after crossing the Bahamas, and on November 2 it became an extratropical cyclone. (The Canadian Hurricane Centreclassified Noel as a post-tropical storm until 2200 UTC November 4 when it determined that it had lost all tropical characteristics.)
The storm caused at least 163 direct deaths along its path, primarily in
Hispaniola, due to flooding and mudslides. It was the deadliest Atlantic hurricaneof the 2007 season. After its transition to post-tropical, Noel became a very strong low pressure system causing flooding and wind damage over Maineand Eastern Canada. It even dropped snow over some areas of Eastern Quebecand Labrador.
tropical wavemoved off the coast of Africaon 16 October.cite web|author=Beven, Brown, and Blake|year=2007|title=October 2007 Monthly Tropical Summary|pu blisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-11-01|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/tws/MIATWSAT_oct.shtml?] It tracked westward, and by 22 October the wave was approaching the Lesser Antilleswith cyclonic turning and scattered convection; at the same time, an upper-level low was located to the north of the Leeward Islands. [cite web|author=Formosa|year=2007|title=October 22 Tropical Weather Discussion|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-27|url=ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Atl-Dis/2007102300.AXNT20] The interaction between the wave and the low produced a large mass of disturbed weather on October 23, [cite web|author=Beven|year=2007|title=October 23 Tropical Weather Outlook|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-27|url=ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Outlook-A/2007102309.ABNT20] and by the next day the system contained a well-defined low-level circulation about 100 miles (160 km) east-northeast of the northern Leeward Islands. [cite web|author=Rhome|year=2007|title=October 24 Tropical Weather Outlook|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-27|url=ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Outlook-A/2007102415.ABNT20] Despite unfavorable upper-level winds, convection increased as surface pressures dropped in association with the organizing system. [cite web|author=Mainelli|year=2007|title=October 25 Tropical Weather Outlook|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-27|url=ftp://ftp.met.fsu.edu/pub/weather/tropical/Outlook-A/2007102521.ABNT20] Based on its organization, the National Hurricane Center classified the system as Tropical Depression Sixteen early on October 28 while located about 195 miles (310 km) south-southeast of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.cite web|author=Beven|year=2007|title=Tropical Depression Nineteen Discussion One|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-27|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.001.shtml?]
By six hours after formation, the center became difficult to locate,cite web|author=Franklin|year=2007|title=Tropical Depression Nineteen Discussion Two|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-28|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.002.shtml?] though subsequently the depression became much better organized; a large area of convection developed over the center, with some rainbands to its south.cite web|author=Knabb|year=2007|title=Tropical Depression Nineteen Discussion Three|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-28|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.003.shtml?] Based on reports from
Hurricane Hunters, the National Hurricane Center upgraded the depression to Tropical Storm Noel at 1815 UTC on October 28 while located about 150 miles (235 km) south-southeast of Port-au-Prince, Haiti.cite web|author=Knabb|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Special Discussion Four|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-28|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.004.shtml?] Noel began to lose organization as a nearby upper-level low increased wind shear,cite web|author=Pasch & Roberts|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Discussion Six|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-30|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.006.shtml?] with the low-level circulation becoming ill-defined as it further interacted with the mountainous terrain of Haiti.cite web|author=Franklin|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Discussion Eight|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-30|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.007.shtml?] The storm crossed western Haiti as a disorganized tropical storm on October 29,cite web|author=Knabb & Mainelli|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Discussion Eight|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-30|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.008.shtml?] and subsequently began paralleling the northeastern coast of Cubawhile moving around the southwestern periphery of a weakening ridge.cite web|author=Pasch & Roberts|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Discussion Ten|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-30|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.010.shtml?] On October 30, Tropical Storm Noel made landfall near Gibara, Cuba, with winds of about 60 mph (95 km/h).cite web|author=Avila|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Discussion Eleven|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-30|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.011.shtml?] cite web|author=Avila|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Public Advisory Eleven|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-30|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.public.011.shtml?] Early on October 31 Noel began drifting to the north-northwest, in response to the approach of a short-wave trough from the west and the eastward shift of the mid-level ridge.cite web|author=Pasch & Blake|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Discussion Fourteen|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.014.shtml?] On October 31, Noel emerged off the north coast of Cuba,cite web|author=Franklin & Landsea|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Public Advisory Fifteen-A|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.public_a.015.shtml?] and subsequently the cyclone became better organized as the circulation became better associated with the convection.cite web|author=Franklin|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Discussion Sixteen|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.016.shtml?] On October 31, the Canadian Hurricane Centrebegan tracking the cyclone.cite web|author=Bowyer|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Information Statement at 9:00 AM EDT on October 31|publisher=Canadian Hurricane Centre|accessdate=2007-11-02|url=http://www.ns.ec.gc.ca/weather/hurricane/bulletins/20071031114803.Noel.txt.en]
At 1800 UTC on November 1, the storm passed over the Bahamian island of
New Providencenear the city of Nassau.cite web|author=Franklin|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Public Advisory Twenty-A|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-11-02|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.public_a.020.shtml?] Later that day Noel accelerated northeastward in the southwesterly flow ahead of an approaching trough.cite web|author=Franklin|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Discussion Twenty-One|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-11-02|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.021.shtml?] Based on reports from Hurricane Hunters, the National Hurricane Center upgraded Noel to hurricane status early on November 2 about 180 miles (285 km) north-northeast of Nassau, Bahamas.cite web|author=Avila|year=2007|title=Hurricane Noel Discussion Twenty-Two|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-11-02|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.022.shtml?] By late on November 2, the inner core had substantially diminished; as it began transitioning into an extratropical cyclone, the National Hurricane Center issued the final advisory on Hurricane Noel.cite web|author=Landsea & Franklin|year=2007|title=Hurricane Noel Discussion Twenty-Five|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-11-02|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.025.shtml?] Early on November 3, the cyclone attained winds of 85 mph (140 km/h), and it gradually turned to the north-northeast. The center of Noel approached Nova Scotia,cite web|author=Fogharty|year=2007|title=Post-Tropical Storm Noel Information Statement at 3:00 AM AST on November 4|publisher=Canadian Hurricane Centre|accessdate=2007-11-04|url=http://www.atl.ec.gc.ca/weather/hurricane/bulletins/20071104062432.Noel.txt.en] and on November 4 it tracked across it and New Brunswick.cite web|author=Fogharty|year=2007|title=Post-Tropical Storm Noel Intermediate Information Statement at 6:00 AM AST on November 4|publisher=Canadian Hurricane Centre|accessdate=2007-11-04|url=http://www.atl.ec.gc.ca/weather/hurricane/bulletins/20071104101032.Noel.txt.en] The extratropical low continued to the northeast and made landfall over southwest Greenlandon the afternoon of November 5. While its lowest barometric pressure as a tropical system was 980 mb, on November 4, while located near Labrador, it registered a minimum pressure of 966 mb. [cite web| author = Canadian Hurricane Centre|title = POST-TROPICAL STORM NOEL INFORMATION STATEMENT| url = http://www.ns.ec.gc.ca/weather/hurricane/bulletins/20071104190342.Noel.txt.en|date = November 4, 2007]
Caribbean and Bahamas
The San Juan
National Weather Serviceissued widespread flood and flash flood warnings and watches across Puerto Rico. Due to unsettled conditions, officials advised residents to stay out of harms way and off the roadways. A flash flood warning was issued for the entirety of the United States Virgin Islands.
Upon being classified as a tropical cyclone, the government of
Haitiissued a tropical storm warning for the southwestern peninsula from its border with the Dominican Republicwestward to Port-au-Prince.cite web|author=Beven|year=2007|title=Tropical Depression Sixteen Public Advisory One|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-28|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.public.001.shtml?] By the time Noel made landfall on Haiti, a tropical storm warning was either recommended or put in place for the southern coast of Hispaniolafrom Barahona, Dominican Republic, to Port-au-Prince, Haiti. In Haiti, Health care centers were advised to activate any emergency plans, and medicine stocks were pre-positioned if needed. Residents in flood-prone areas were evacuated. [cite web|author=Pan American Health Organization|title=HAITI AND DOMINICAN REPUBLIC – TROPICAL STORM NOEL|year=2007|publisher=|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.who.int/hac/crises/hti/sitreps/haiti_29oct007.pdf] In the departments of Sud-Est, Sud, Grand Anse, Nippes, Ouest, Centre and Artibonie, a red alert was issued, while an orange alert was issued for Nord-Est, Nord and Nord-Ouest. [cite web|author=International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies|title=Haiti Floods: Heavy Rains and Tropical Storm Noel DREF Bulletin no. MDRHT004|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/THOU-78H3DV?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti] In the Dominican Republic, 14,500 people sought protection in shelters. [cite web|author=|title=Hurricanes in the Dominican Republic|publisher=DR1|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://dr1.com/articles/hurricanes_2.shtml] About 1,000 inmates were evacuated from a prison north of the country's capital city. [cite web|author=Staff Writer|title=Noel Death Toll Rises To At Least 81|year=2007|publisher=CBS News|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.cbsnews.com/stories/2007/10/31/storm/main3435270.shtml?source=mostpop_story] The National Emergency Commission authorized the opening of a number of shelters, and the Dominican Red Cross activated search and rescue teams. The Coordination Centre set up a "crisis room", assigning workers to 24-hour shifts. [cite web|author=International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies|title=Bahamas, Cuba and Dominican Republic: Tropical Storm Noel Information bulletin No. 01/2007|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/THOU-78H4X8?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=dom]
A hurricane watch was issued for southeastern Cuba; a tropical storm warning was in effect for the southeastern Bahamas, including the
Turks and Caicos Islands, and a tropical storm watch was put in place for the central Bahamas.cite web|author=Mainelli & Knabb|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Public Advisory Seven-A|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.public_a.007.shtml?] A tropical storm warning was also issued for the northwestern Bahamas. There, most government offices were closed during the passage of the storm. On the island of Andros, residents took extra care in securing their boats. [cite web|author=Associated Press|title=Tropical Storm Noel heads toward Bahamas |year=2007|publisher="The Dallas Morning News"|accessdate=2008-10-01|url=http://www.dallasnews.com/sharedcontent/dws/news/nationworld/stories/110207dnintnoel.1c9539fc1.html] As the storm tracked further to the northwest, a tropical storm warning was put in place for the Cuban provinces of Guantánamo, Holguín, Las Tunas, Ciego de Ávila, and Camagüey.cite web|author=CBC News|year=2007|title=Hurricane Noel loses strength as it heads to eastern Canada|accessdate=2007-11-02|url=http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2007/11/02/hurricane-noel.html] The Cuban Institute of Meteorology advised caution to residents, due to previous heavy rainfall leaving grounds saturated.cite web|author=Agence France-Presse|year=2007|title=At least 59 killed in Tropical Storm Noel's Caribbean rampage|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5gVWjsPEiqe1tEu2mhBIRaxxGi8owD8SKD3F82] Several schools were closed during the storm's onslaught.cite news|author=Ramon Almanzar|year=2007|title=Sixty dead at Noel hits Dominican Republic and Haiti|publisher=Associated Press|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://www.kare11.com/news/national/national_article.aspx?storyid=268618] In Camaguey, thousands of cattlewere moved to higher ground, and roughly 3,000 students working to harvest coffee crops were forced to return home. A United States Naval base in Guantanamo Baystacked sandbags to protect structures in areas vulnerable to flooding, namely those in low-lying terrain. [cite web|author=Anthony Boadle|title=Weakened Tropical Storm Noel drenches Cuba|year=2007|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2008-09-30|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/homepageCrisis/idUSN30640072._CH_.2400]
United States and Canada
Late on October 31, the
National Hurricane Centerissued a tropical storm watch for southeastern Florida, as tropical storm force winds were expected to come close to the coastline.cite web|author=Franklin|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Discussion Seventeen|publisher=National Hurricane Center|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/al16/al162007.discus.017.shtml?] Coastal flood warnings, high surf advisories, and high wind warnings were posted for the coastline of North Carolinaand South Carolinaas Noel churned offshore in the Atlantic. Similar advisories were placed into effect from Virginia Beach, Virginiato Ocean City, Maryland. A coastal flood watch was issued for parts of New York, including Long Island. As the extratropical storm progressed north, wind advisories were posted along the coast of New England.cite web|author|title=Hurricane Season 2007: Noel (Atlantic)|year=2007|publisher=NASA|accessdate=2008-08-29|url=http://www.nasa.gov/mission_pages/hurricanes/archives/2007/h2007_noel.html] The Cape Cod and Islandsdivision of the Red Crossopened a number of shelters on Nantucketand along coastal Massachusetts. Stores on Cape Cod were closed; some of them boarded up windows, [cite web|author=Associated Press|title=New England hit by remnants of Hurricane Noel|year=2007|publisher=Boston.com|accessdate=2008-08-30|url=http://www.boston.com/news/local/massachusetts/articles/2007/11/03/new_england_braces_for_remnants_of_hurricane_noel/] and the U.S. Coast Guardcompleted preparations and warned sailors of the storm. [cite web|author=Scott Malone|title=New England braces for remnants of Hurricane Noel|year=2007|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2008-08-30|url=http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N03568196.htm]
Prior to the arrival of Noel into
Atlantic Canada, heavy rain and strong wind warnings were put in place for many locations in southeastern Canada. The Canadian Hurricane Centerissued hurricane force wind warnings for waters to the southwest of the Maritimesand gale warnings for waters elsewhere off of southeastern Canada. The Halifax and Montreal Storm Prediction Centers of the Meteorological Service of Canadaissued high winds and heavy rain warning for all the areas of the Maritimes, Newfoundland, Labradorand Eastern Quebec, as well as heavy snow warnings for certain regions.cite web|author=Bowyer & Fogharty|year=2007|title=Post-Tropical Storm Noel Information Statement at 9:00 PM EDT on November 2|publisher=Canadian Hurricane Centre|accessdate=2007-11-02|url=http://www.ns.ec.gc.ca/weather/hurricane/bulletins/20071102234334.Noel.txt.en] Air Canadacanceled 13 of their flights in and out of Halifax. Throughout Nova Scotia, 500 Red Crossvolunteers were put on standby. [cite web|author=Staff Writer|title=Nothing Merry About Noel|year=2007|publisher=CBC News|accessdate=2008-09-08|url=http://www.cbc.ca/canada/nova-scotia/story/2007/11/02/noel-ns.html]
Lesser Antilles and Puerto Rico
Heavy rainfall fell across the northern
Lesser Antillesfor several days in association with the precursor disturbance, unofficially reaching over 6 inches (150 mm) on Saint Croixcite web|author=Dave McDermott|year=2007|title=Caribbean Hurricane Network Reports for 2007|publisher=Stormcarib.com|accessdate=2007-10-28|url=http://www.stormcarib.com/] and Saint Thomas.cite web|author=Jane Higgins|year=2007|title=Unofficial Reports from Saint Thomas|publisher=Caribbean Hurricane Network|accessdate=2007-10-28|url=http://www.stormcarib.com/reports/current/stthomas.shtml]
The precursor disturbance also dropped heavy rainfall across
Puerto Ricofor several days, leaving grounds saturated and causing surface runoff. Precipitation peaked at 17.23 inches (437.6 mm) at Carite Lake.cite web|author=David Roth|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel Rainfall Summary|publisher=Hydrometeorological Prediction Center|accessdate=2007-11-04|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/noel2007.html] Flash flooding was reported in Carolina, and a mudslide occurred in Utuado. Flooding occurred along several rivers, including the Río de la Plata, with a reading of 8.9 feet (2.7 m) above flood stage at Toa Baja reported late on October 27.cite web|author=Puerto Rico National Weather Service|year=2007|title=Watches and Warnings for Puerto Rico on October 27, 2007|publisher=NOAA|accessdate=2007-10-28|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5Sux2Uu5U] In response to high water levels, officials opened dam gates along the Río de la Plata and the Río Carraízo. [cite web|author=Prensa Asociada|year=2007|title=Seguirá lloviendo|publisher=Primera Hora|accessdate=2007-10-28|language=Spanish|url=http://www.webcitation.org/5Sw2owsJz] There were no official reports of fatalities.
Dominican Republic, the highest rainfall amount reported was 21.65 in (550 mm) at Padre Las Casas. [ David M. Roth. [http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/tcmaxima.html Tropical Cyclone Point Maxima.] Retrieved on 2007-11-04.] For about two hours, the entire island was without power. Two days later, one-third of the population was still without electricity. The heavy rainfall caused extreme flooding throughout the island, which also caused mudslides. It is reported that buildings were swept down the sides of mountains.cite web|author=Ramon Almanza|year=2007|title=Killer Storm Heads Toward Bahamas|publisher=Associated Press|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://ap.google.com/article/ALeqM5gVWjsPEiqe1tEu2mhBIRaxxGi8owD8SKD3F82] Extensive damage occurred in 29 of the country's 32 provinces. [cite web|author=Oxfam|title=Dominican Republic faces a national disaster after Tropical Storm Noel|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-17|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/EMAE-78PNHT?OpenDocument] People in the path of the flooding escaped to roof and tree tops. Additionally, about 1,000 prisoners were evacuated due to flooding. The flooding damaged over 24,500 homes, [cite web|author=United States Agency for International Development (USAID)|title=USAID Dominican Republic – Tropical Storm Fact Sheet #1 (FY 2008)|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-16|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/RMOI-78LUKH?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=dom] of which 6,000 were completely destroyed. Many rivers topped their banks, causing flash flooding in valleys, which killed 10 people in the town of Piedra Blanca. [cite web|author=Deutsche Presse Agentur (DPA)|title=Tropical storm Noel kills 20 in Dominican Republic|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-17|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/EVOD-78GHG9?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=dom] Many roads were destroyed, isolating roughly 153 villages from outside civilization; at least 50 bridges in the country were washed away or damaged.cite web|author=United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)|title=Dominican Republic: Tropical Storm Noel OCHA Situation Report No. 6|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-16|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/SIRU-78S28Y?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=dom] By just days after the storm, 1,522 people were rescued from flood waters.cite web|author=United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)|title=Dominican Republic: Tropical Storm Noel OCHA Situation Report No. 1|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-17|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/SIRU-78R4HW?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=dom] Severe crop losses were reported. The primary agricultural damages were to plantain, banana, tomato and red onioncrops. In some locations, the production of such fruits was completely lost. [cite web|author=Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO)|title=Dominican Republic: Tropical Storm Noel causes severe losses to food and cash crops|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-17|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/YSAR-78HH2E?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=dom] Crop damage in the country totaled $77.7 million (2007 USD), [cite web|author=United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs|title=Dominican Republic: Tropical Storm Noel OCHA Situation Report No. 8|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-05|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/RMOI-792VSS?OpenDocument&rc=2&emid=TC-2007-000198-DOM] while livestocklosses were also reported. [cite web|author=Action by Churches Together International (ACT)|title=ACT Alert Dominican Republic & Haiti – No. 1/2007: Tropical Storm Noel|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-17|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/KARI-78NNYR?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=dom] There was severe damage to water distribution, and many of the 122 aqueductswere damaged or destroyed. Due to health concerns and the onslaught of disease, some medical centers reached maximum capacity. [cite web|author=United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID)|title=Tropical storm Noel hits Dominican Republic and Haiti|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-17|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/EDIS-78PLV8?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=dom] In all, the storm caused at least 87 fatalities in the country, and 42 others were reported missing. Over 65,000 people were left homeless.cite web|author=United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs (OCHA)|title=Dominican Republic: Tropical Storm Noel OCHA Situation Report No. 3|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-17|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/SIRU-78N2CG?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=dom] However, because many villages were isolated, these numbers may not reflect the actual total.
Noel is the third wettest tropical cyclone in Haiti, dropping 569.7 mm (22.43) at Camp Perrin.cite web|author=ORE|publisher=Organization for the Rehabilitation of the Environment|url=http://oreworld.org/images/r_in_eng/2007%20in_eng.pdf|title=Rainfall in Camp Perrin, Haiti in 2007|date=2008-01-01|accessdate=2007-12-26|format=PDF] Rainfall across the rest of the country was generally in the 25 mm to 225 mm (1 in–9 in) range. [cite web|author=|title=Tropical Storm Noel|year=2007|publisher=NASA|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/NaturalHazards/natural_hazards_v2.php3?img_id=14601] Five days of rainfall caused severe flooding and
mudslides,cite news|author=Anthony Boadle|year=2007|title=Tropical Storm Noel strengthens after hitting Cuba|publisher=Reuters Foundation|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://uk.reuters.com/article/homepageCrisis/idUKN31308688._CH_.242020071031] affecting about 3,252 families. Rivers and creeks swelled up, forcing communities to evacuate. [cite web|author=Associated Press|title=Tropical Storm Noel lashes Haiti|year=2007|publisher=USA Today|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.usatoday.com/weather/storms/hurricanes/2007-10-28-td-16_N.htm] In the country, about 500 houses were damaged by the floods' onslaught,cite web|author=Pan American Health Organization|title=Haiti: Special Report - 2 Nov 2007|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/EGUA-78VNYD?OpenDocument] of which an estimated 400 were completely destroyed. [cite web|author=Anthony Boadle|title=Tropical Storm Noel strengthens after hitting Cuba|year=2007|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/EMAE-78HM5G?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti] The cities that were the worst affected by the flooding were Cayes, Cantaloupe, Camp Perrin, Chantal, Maniche, Holy louis of the South and Torbeck.cite web|author=Radio Kiskeya|title=Noël : Le nouveau bilan passe à 57 morts, 17 disparus et plus de 100 blessés|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/RMOI-78MN3F?OpenDocument|language=French] The main road to the country's capital, Port-au-Prince, was blocked, [cite web|author=Pan American Health Organization|title=Tropical Storm Noel affects the Dominican Republic, Haiti and Cuba|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/KKAA-78J5MB?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=hti] in addition to other roads throughout the country. [cite web|author=ActionAid|title=Haitians lose crops, homes and roads in Tropical Storm Noel|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/SSHN-78KJET?OpenDocument] The Haitian Civil Protection Office initially attributed 18 deaths to Noel in the country; two additional deaths were reported, one due to flooding and another due to being crushed by a tree. In total, 73 deaths were reported in the country; 17 others remained missing.cite web|author=National Hurricane Center|year=2007|title=Tropical Cyclone Report for Hurricane Noel|accessdate=2007-12-17|url=http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/pdf/TCR-AL162007_Noel.pdf] In addition, 7,500 in Haiti were displaced by the storm, [cite web|author=United Nations Children's Fund|title=Floods continue to cause havoc in Haiti|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-03|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/SHES-78KQ9M?OpenDocument] and 104 people were injured.
Jamaica, Cuba, and the Bahamas
Heavy rainfall fell across portions of
Jamaica; the rains triggered a mudslide that caused a house to collapse, killing one person. The eastern end of the island was hit particularly hard. Several communities were isolated, and roads and bridges were impassible in some areas. [cite web|author=Alex Morales and Kelly Riddell|title=Hurricane Noel Expands, Takes Aim at Cape Cod, Maine (Update6) |year=2007|publisher=Bloomberg|accessdate=2008-09-05|url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601103&sid=aqG8A_B0NKbY&refer=us] The rainfall caused at least 20 mudslides across the island; one of them caused a large pile-upthat persisted for hours.cite web|author=Staff Writer|title='Noel'-related rains wreaking havoc|year=2007|publisher=Jamaica Gleaner|accessdate-2008-09-05|url=http://www.jamaica-gleaner.com/gleaner/20071104/lead/lead4.html]
Cuba, the storm dropped about 6 inches (150 mm) of rainfall in six hours in the city of Baracoa, which overflowed reservoirs in the region. The highest 24 hour total noted was at Mangos de Baraguá, where convert|364|mm|in|abbr=on fell between the mornings of October 29 and October 30. [Instituto de Meteorología de la República del Cuba. [http://www.met.inf.cu/asp/genesis.asp?TB0=PLANTILLAS&TB1=BOLETINAGRIC&TB2=/agrometeorologia/agro_boletin.htm El Tiempo y la Agricultura.] Retrieved on 2007-11-04.] Strong winds and rough waves were reported along the northern coastline. The passage of the storm caused severe flooding and mudslides, which damaged over 21,000 homes in the province of Granma alone, [cite web|author=Agence France-Presse (AFP)|title=Floods leave one dead, major damage in Cuba|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-10-01|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/KHII-78S83N?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=cub] cite news|author=Ramon Almanzar|year=2007|title=Sixty dead at Noel hits Dominican Republic and Haiti|publisher=Associated Press|accessdate=2007-10-31|url=http://www.kare11.com/news/national/national_article.aspx?storyid=268618] and destroyed about 120 homes in Camagüey.cite news|author=Agence French-Presse|date=2007-11-01|title=At least 80 killed as Tropical Storm Noel aims for the Bahamas|accessdate=2007-11-01|urlhttp://afp.google.com/article/ALeqM5h_j_b9x3Ggv_bFeT4zDx7UsfNssQ] Flooding isolated a few areas, and destroyed more than 3.9 million lb (1.8 million kg) of crops in Ciego de Ávila Province. The rainfall contributed to precipitation totals being 300% of the normal rainfall in Guantánamo Province, which caused a dam in the province to overflow. In the province of Santiago, about convert|400|km|mi|abbr=on of roads were damaged. At least 98,000 people throughout the country evacuated from the flooding; of which nearly 20,000 did so to escape the Cauto Riverwhich topped its banks, and 40,000 were in the province of Granma. Many stayed in shelters. Of Cuba's 239 rivers, at least 137 overflowed. [cite web|author=Xinhua News Agency|title=Tropical storm Noel causes heavy losses in Cuba|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-10-01|url=http://reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/KKAA-78Q4EX?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=cub] One fatality was reported in Cuba; total damage is estimated at $500 million (2007 USD).
Tropical Storm Noel dropped heavy rainfall across portions of
the Bahamas, reaching a record total of 15 inches (380 mm) at one station. Sustained winds were around convert|40|mph|km/h|abbr=on throughout the central and northwestern regions of the island chain. [cite web|author=|title=TROPICAL STORM NOEL AND THE ISLANDS OF THE BAHAMAS|year=2007|publisher=Bahamas.com|accessdate=2008-10-02|url=http://preview.bahamas.com/assets/content/pdf/Tropical%20Storm%20Noel%20Update.pdf] Extensive flooding was reported, especially on Abaco Island, [cite web|author=Staff Writer|title=Hurricane Noel loses strength as it heads to eastern Canada|year=2007|publisher=CBC News|accessdate=2008-09-07|url=http://www.cbc.ca/world/story/2007/11/02/hurricane-noel.html] forcing the evacuation of over 700 people. Long Island was hit the worst, where flood waters reportedly reached convert|5|ft|m|abbr=on deep. [cite web|author=International Federation of Red Cross And Red Crescent Societies|title=The Bahamas: Hurricane Noel DREF Bulletin No. MDR49002|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-08|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/RWB.NSF/db900SID/RMOI-78MLUU?OpenDocument] Residents of the island deemed the damage "devastating", reporting that flood waters were the highest in 60 years. [cite web|author=Michael Christie|title=Noel becomes hurricane, moves away from Bahamas|year=2007|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2008-10-02|url=http://www.alertnet.org/thenews/newsdesk/N01430572.htm] In some locations, houses were under several feet of water, while roads throughout the Bahamas suffered damage. [cite web|author=Caribbean Disaster Emergency Response Agency|title=Tropical Storm Noel - Situation Report #3|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-08|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/EDIS-78NMWK?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=bhs] The Deadman’s Cay Airport was also flooded, and on the island of Exuma, six of the nine schools received extensive damage.cite web|author=Bahamas Information Serivce|title=Assessments and Relief Ongoing in the Aftermath of Tropical Storm Noel|year=2007|publisher=Government of The Bahamas|accessdate=2008-10-02|url=http://www.bahamas.gov.bs/bahamasweb2/home.nsf/a2adf3d1baf5cc6e06256f03005ed59c/a854ddb178453e538525738a005ffa48!OpenDocument] About 16,000 people were affected by the floods, including 10,000 on Long Island. [cite web|author=Caribbean Red Cross Societies|title=Bahamas Red Cross starts relief efforts after Noel|year=2007|publisher=ReliefWeb|accessdate=2008-09-08|url=http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/KHII-78S2ET?OpenDocument&rc=2&cc=bhs] The Nassau International Airportwas closed due to the storm, and most cruise ships failed to arrive on schedule. [cite web|author=Associated Press|title=Noel Soaks Bahamas, Cuba, Toll at 115|year=2007|publisher=ABC News|accessdate=2008-10-01|url=http://abcnews.go.com/International/WireStory?id=3807131&page=2] One fatality occurred when a man on the island of Exuma abandoned a stalled truck, and was subsequently swept away by flood waters into a nearby pond. [cite web|author=Associated Press|title=Tropical Storm Noel drenches Bahamas and Cuba as Caribbean death toll rises|year=2007|publisher="Herald Tribune"|accessdate=2008-10-01|url=http://www.iht.com/articles/ap/2007/11/01/news/CB-GEN-Caribbean-Tropical-Weather.php] When Prime Minister Hubert Ingrahamvisited hard-hit areas to assess the damage, he stated that it would be possible for Public Worksto "be able to get some pumps in to pump some of the water out." However, he also noted that, "In some areas that will be very difficult because you have ponds on both sides of the road."
The interaction between Noel and the ridge to its north produced strong gusty winds and high waves along the east coast of the
U.S. stateof Florida, as well as local rainfall amounts up to 2.14 inches (54.4 mm) as its rain bands moved in from the Atlantic. [cite web|author=David Roth|title=Tropical Cyclone Rainfall in Florida|year=|publisher=Hydrometeorological Prediction Center|accessdate=2008-08-27|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/tcflorida.html] Beach erosionwas significant, amounting to about $4 million in damage. In some locations, oceanfront buildings sat at the edge of a convert|15|ft|m|abbr=on drop to the water due to the erosion. Additionally, coastal flooding and minor wind damage were reported, leaving 5,000 in the state without electric power.cite web|author=National Climatic Data Center|title=Hurricane Noel Event Report for Florida|year=2007|publisher=|accessdate=2008-08-27|url=http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~ShowEvent~688159] As an extratropical cyclone, Noel, combined with high pressure building in from the northwest, produced moderate winds along the Outer Banksof North Carolina. Light precipitation fell in the storm's outer rain bands, peaking at 0.5 inches (13 mm) in Morehead City.cite web|author=Anne Johnson|title=Outer Banks Get Wind, Little Rain From Storm|year=2007|publisher=WRAL.com|url=http://www.wral.com/news/state/story/1998320/] The storm produced strong waves that briefly left a portion of North Carolina Highway 12covered with water and sand.cite web|author=National Climatic Data Center|title=Coastal Flood Event Report for North Carolina|year=2007|publisher=|accessdate=2008-08-27|url=http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~ShowEvent~687682]
The western side of the then-extratropical storm hit eastern
New England, particularly coastal Massachusetts, Rhode Islandand Maine, on November 3 with hurricane-force wind gusts. Massachusetts saw the highest wind gust at convert|89|mph|km/h|abbr=on, with sustained winds topping out at convert|59|mph|km/h|abbr=on. Throughout Cape Cod, trees and tree limbs were downed, particularly along Old Main Street in South Yarmouth.cite web|author=John Basile|title=Storm batters Cape, electric service hard hit: recovery under way|year=2007|publisher=Wicked Local Barnstable|accessdate=2008-08-28|url=http://www.wickedlocal.com/barnstable/homepage/x1149878183] The winds were also strong across central and Downeast Maine, where sustained winds of convert|50|mph|km/h|abbr=on and gusts to convert|70|mph|km/h|abbr=on were not uncommon.cite web|author=National Climatic Data Center|title=High Wind Event Report for Maine|year=2007|publisher=|accessdate=2008-08-30|url=http://www4.ncdc.noaa.gov/cgi-win/wwcgi.dll?wwevent~ShowEvent~688146] Rainfall peaked at convert|5.03|in|mm|abbr=on at Cutler Rainwise, Maine, while other reports ranged from less than 1 in (25 mm) to 4 in (100 mm). [cite web|author=David Roth|title=Tropical Cyclone Rainfall in New England|year|publisher=Hydrometeorological Prediction Center|accessdate=2008-08-29|url=http://www.hpc.ncep.noaa.gov/tropical/rain/tcnewengland.html] Power outages were widespread; about 80,000 customers in Massachusetts and 9,000 in Maine lost electric power, mostly on Cape Cod. As a result, a candle burned because of the blackout is blamed on sparking a house fire in Barnstable, though no people were killed or injured.cite web|author=Associated Press|title=New Englanders clean up after remnants of Hurricane Noel|year=2007|publisher=USA Today|accessdate=2008-08-28|url=http://www.usatoday.com/weather/storms/hurricanes/2007-11-03-newengland-noel_N.htm] In all, despite the effects, no fatalities or major property damage were reported. [cite web|author=Scott Malone|title=Remains of Hurricane Noel batter New England coast|year=2008|publisher=Reuters|accessdate=2008-08-29|url=http://www.reuters.com/article/asiaTopNews/idUSIndia-30317820071103]
Atlantic Canada and Quebec
The storm continued on into
Atlantic Canadawith full force in the latter part of November 3 and early on November 4. Many flights were cancelled out of several airports, and around 150,000 people in New Brunswickand Nova Scotialost power for several days, due to high winds and "salt fog" disabling the power grid. Flooding was also reported due to the heavy rainfall. [ [http://ca.news.yahoo.com/s/capress/071103/national/wea_atl_noel_10 Yahoo Canada news] ] In Prince Edward Island, 10,000 people lost electricity. Newfoundland was relatively unaffected, although ferries between it and Nova Scotia were canceled for the entire weekend and winds peaked at 180 km/h (113 mph) in Wreckhouse.cite web|url=http://www.ctv.ca/servlet/ArticleNews/story/CTVNews/20071103/hurricane_Noel_071104/20071104?hub=TopStories|title=Thousands still without power in Noel's wake|publisher=CTV|date=November 4th, 2007|accessdate=2007-11-10] cite web|url=http://www.cbc.ca/canada/nova-scotia/story/2007/11/04/nsstorm-power.html|title=Nova Scotians assess damage after storm|publisher=CBC|date=November 4th, 2007|accessdate=2007-11-10] Over 70 mm (2.8 inches) of rainfall was received in some areas, and waves of over 12 metres (40 ft) were reported in the Atlantic, off the coast of Nova Scotia. Several coastal roads were washed out, with boulders thrown far on shore by the pounding surf. One fish farm in Nova Scotia took $1,000,000 in damage alone, losing almost all of its catch.In eastern Quebec, up to 130 mm (5 inches) of rain fell in Gaspésie, Anticosti, and Eastern Côte-Nord, causing flooding in several areas. In Bas-Saint-Laurent, Sept-Îlesand Baie-Comeauregions, it was 20 cm (8 inches) of snow that fell, causing a bus accident with 10 injuries near Saint-Simon. [http://lcn.canoe.ca/lcn/infos/regional/archives/2007/11/20071104-084211.html Un accident d’autobus fait 10 blessés, LCN] ] Severe rains flooded the water treatment facility in Percé, Quebec, leaving the city under a boil-water advisory; [ [http://www.radio-canada.ca/regions/atlantique/2007/11/04/001-tempete-noel-dimanche_n.shtml Noël s'abat sur l'est du pays, Radio-Canada] ] the city is also cut from the rest of the province as the heavy rains made a short section of Quebec Route 132unusable. In Quebec, just under 19,000 Hydro-Québeccustomers lost power, and activity was affected at several Côte-Nord plants, including plants in the aluminum sector. [ [http://lcn.canoe.ca/lcn/infos/regional/archives/2007/11/20071104-125050.html De la neige… et des pannes de courant, LCN] ] A major transmission line in the Minganie region was damaged by the heavy wet snow and locally freezing rain, causing blackouts and school closures. [ [http://www.radio-canada.ca/regions/est-quebec/2007/11/05/001-tempete-noel-estqc.asp, Lent retour à la normale dans l'Est, Radio-Canada (Est-du-Quebec)] ] One fatality related to the storm was reported in Canada when a boat collapsed. [cite web|author=Canadian Hurricane Centre|year=2008|title=2007 Tropical Cyclone Season Summary|accessdate=2008-03-12|url=http://www.atl.ec.gc.ca/weather/hurricane/storm07.html]
The government of the
Dominican Republicdistributed emergency supplies to 145,000 families following the storm, including food, blankets, mattresses, and mosquito nets. The relief aid amounted to about $3 million (USD). The government requested a $200 million (USD) loan from the Inter-American Development Bankand the World Bankon November 1.cite web|author=Kelly Riddell and Ryan Flinn|publisher=Bloomberg Television|title=Storm Noel Becomes Hurricane, Heads Away From Bahamas|year=2007|accessdate=2007-11-02|url=http://www.bloomberg.com/apps/news?pid=20601086&sid=aczqilI1fiq4&refer=latin_america] Storm flooding led to an outbreak of leptospirosisin the Dominican Republic in the weeks following the passage of Noel, causing 25 deaths and infecting 193 others. [ [http://www.reliefweb.int/rw/rwb.nsf/db900sid/PANA-794K62?OpenDocument&rc=2&emid=TC-2007-000198-DOM News: Hurricane Noel - Oct 2007, Dominican disease outbreak kills 25 after storm ] ] The government of Haitiallocated about $1.5 million (USD) for those affected by the storm.
Due to the damage and deaths from Noel the name was officially retired on May 13, 2008 by the
World Meteorological Organizationduring its annual meeting in Orlando, Florida, and will never be used again on future Atlantic hurricanes. It was replaced by Nestor on List V of the Atlantic hurricane naming lists, which will next be used in the 2013 Atlantic hurricane season. [cite web|url = http://www.noaanews.noaa.gov/stories2008/20080513_stormnames.html|title = Dean, Felix and Noel "Retired" from List of Storm Names|accessmonthday = May 13|accessyear = 2008|date = May 13, 2008|publisher = NOAA] Noel was the first retired N name since the World Meteorological Organizationstarted retiring names in 1954, and is one of just five Category 1 hurricanes to have their name retired in the Atlantic; the others were Agnes in 1972, Klaus in 1990, Cesar in 1996 and Stan in 2005. [cite web|url = http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/retirednames.shtml|title = Retired Hurricane Names 1954-2005|accessmonthday = May 13|accessyear = 2008|date = May 13, 2008|publisher = NHC]
Geography of the Dominican Republic
Geography of Haiti
List of wettest tropical cyclones by country
Winter storms of 2007–08
* The NHC's [http://www.nhc.noaa.gov/archive/2007/NOEL.shtml? archive on Hurricane Noel]
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