- Ambient occlusion
Ambient occlusion is a shading method used in
3D computer graphicswhich helps add realism to local reflection models by taking into account attenuation of light due to occlusion. Unlike local methods like Phong shading, ambient occlusion is a global method, meaning the illumination at each point is a function of other geometry in the scene. However, it is a very crude approximation to full global illumination. The soft appearance achieved by ambient occlusion alone is similar to the way an object appears on an overcast day.
Ambient occlusion is most often calculated by casting rays in every direction from the surface. Rays which reach the background or “sky” increase the brightness of the surface, whereas a ray which hits any other object contributes no illumination. As a result, points surrounded by a large amount of geometry are rendered dark, whereas points with little geometry on the visible hemisphere appear light.
Ambient occlusion is related to accessibility shading, which determines appearance based on how easy it is for a surface to be touched by various elements (e.g., dirt, light, etc.). It has been popularized in production animation due to its relative simplicity and efficiency. In the industry, ambient occlusion is often referred to as "sky light."Fact|date=June 2008
The ambient occlusion shading model has the nice property of offering a better perception of the 3d shape of the displayed objects. This was shown in a paper [ "Depth discrimination from shading under diffuse lighting", M.S. Langer and H. H. Buelthoff, Perception. 29 (6) 649-660, 2000. ] where the authors report the results of perceptual experiments showing that depth discrimination underdiffuse uniform sky lighting is superior to that predicted by a direct lighting model.
The occlusion at a point on a surface with normal can be computed by integrating the
visibility functionover the hemisphere with respect to projected solid angle:
where is the
visibility functionat , defined to be zero if is occluded in the direction and one otherwise. A variety of techniques are used to approximate this integral in practice: perhaps the most straightforward way is to use the Monte Carlo methodby casting rays from the point p and testing for intersection with other scene geometry (i.e., ray casting). Another approach (more suited to hardware acceleration) is to render the view from by rasterizing black geometry against a white background and taking the (cosine-weighted) average of rasterized fragments. This approach is an example of a "gathering" or "inside-out" approach, whereas other algorithms (such as depth-map ambient occlusion) employ "scattering" or "outside-in" techniques.
In addition to the ambient occlusion value, a "bent normal" vector is often generated, which points in the average direction of unoccluded samples. The bent normal can be used to look up incident
radiancefrom an environment mapto approximate image-based lighting. However, there are some situations in which the direction of the bent normal is a misrepresentation of the dominant direction of illumination, e.g.,
Screen Space Ambient Occlusion
* [http://www.andrew-whitehurst.net/amb_occlude.html Depth Map based Ambient Occlusion]
* [http://www-viz.tamu.edu/students/bmoyer/617/ambocc/ Ambient Occlusion]
* [http://www.cs.unc.edu/~coombe/research/ao/ Assorted notes about ambient occlusion]
* [http://www.tml.hut.fi/~janne/aofields/ Ambient Occlusion Fields] — real-time ambient occlusion using cube maps
* [http://www.inria.fr/rrrt/rr-5779.html Fast Precomputed Ambient Occlusion for Proximity Shadows] real-time ambient occlusion using volume textures
* [http://download.nvidia.com/developer/GPU_Gems_2/GPU_Gems2_ch14.pdf Dynamic Ambient Occlusion and Indirect Lighting] a real time self ambient occlusion method from Nvidia's GPU Gems 2 book
* [http://vcg.sourceforge.net/tiki-index.php?page=ShadeVis ShadeVis] an open source tool for computing ambient occlusion
* [http://www.xnormal.net xNormal] A free normal mapper/ambient occlusion baking application
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