Embryo donation

Embryo donation

Embryo donation is a form of third party reproduction. In vitro fertilisation often results in a number of frozen, unused embryos after the woman for whom they were originally created has successfully carried one or more pregnancies to term. In embryo donation, these extra embryos are given to other couples or women for transfer with the goal of producing a successful pregnancy. The resulting child is considered the child of the woman who carries it and gives birth, and not the child of the donor, the same as occurs with egg donation or sperm donation.

Typically, genetic parents donate the eggs to a Fertility Clinic or Embryo Bank where they are Cryogenically preserved until a carrier is found for them. Typically the process of matching the embryo(s) with the prospective parents is conducted by the agency itself, at which time the clinic transfers ownership of the Embryos to the prospective parents. [ [http://www.resolve.org/site/PageServer?pagename=lrn_wamo_pd RESOLVE: The National Infertility Association: Donor Embryo: Online Guide for Potential Donors ] ]

Women seeking to be an embryo recipient undergo FDA required infectious disease screening, as well as reproductive tests to determine the best placement location and cycle timing before the actual Embryo Transfer occurs. The amount of screening the embryo has already undergone is largely dependent on the Genetic Parents' own IVF clinic and process. The embryo recipient may elect to have her own embryologist conduct further testing.

Alternatives to donating unused embryos are discarding them, keeping them frozen indefinitely, or donating them for use in embryonic stem cell research.

Embryo adoption

Because embryos are not granted personhood status under the law, embryo donation is legally considered a property transfer and not an adoption. The term "Embryo Adoption" refers to the procedural elements of the embryo transfer entered into willingly by both the genetic and "adoptive" parents and not the legal classification. Legally, Embryo Adoption is the same as Embryo Donation.

Genetic Parents entering an Embryo Adoption program are offered the benefits of selecting the adoptive parents from the Agency's pool of prescreened applicants. Embryo ownership is transferred directly from the genetic parents to the adoptive parents and never to the mediating agency. Genetic Parents are updated by the agency when a successful pregnancy is achieved and when (a) child(ren) is/are born. The Genetic Parents may seek additional updates from the Agency if they so choose.

Prospective Adoptive Parents entering the program complete an Application, Traditional Adoption Homestudy, Adoption Education, Health Checks and in some cases depending on the requirements of both the Homestudy and placement agencies, Court Certification of Adoption Eligibility. Their completed paperwork and fees are submitted to the Placement Agency, which reviews their file and matches them to Genetic parents with similar preferences including desired level of openness post-adoption. Genetic and Prospective parents are then given the chance to approve the match. Once all parties agree, the Embryo is transferred to the adoptive mother's clinic for a Frozen Embryo Transfer.

None of the procedures involved with Embryo Adoption by either the Genetic or Adopting Parents are legal requirements of embryo transfer. The process is entered in to willingly by both sets of parents because of the added safeguards, knowledge and communication offered to both parties by the system [ [http://www.embryoadoption.org/faqs/index.cfm Embryo Adoption & Donation ] ] .

The matter gained another political dimension in the United States when Congress and the Bush administration gave $1 million to promote embryo adoption. [ [http://www.embryoadoption.org/about/grants.cfm Embryo Adoption & Donation ] ] [ [http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/3076556/ The problem with ‘embryo adoption’ - Breaking Bioethics - MSNBC.com ] ]

The process' founding Agency, Nightlight, also refers to Embryo Adoption as "Snowflake Adoption" referring to the uniqueness of each embryo. Because Nightlight was the only provider of this option for many years, the term has become common vernacular when referring to the Embryo-Adoption process, though no longer referring exclusively to Nightlight's so-named Snowflake program.

As of 2008, a few agencies nation-wide offer Embryo Adoption:Nightlight Christian Adoption [http://www.nightlight.org/snowflakeadoption.htm] Embryos Alive [http://www.embryosalive.com/] and the National Embryo Donation Center [http://www.embryodonation.org/adoption.html] .

As of 2008, Nighlight reported that it has matched 289 donating families (with approx. 2,092 embryos) with 192 adopting families. 118 children have been born and 19 adopting families are currently expecting 25 babies. AS of 2006 Embryos Alive reported 10 births and 3 pregnancies.

ee also

*Assisted reproductive technology

References

External links

* [http://www.PrenatalAdoption.Com PrenatalAdoption.Com A non-profit Embryo Donation Embryo Adoption Agency]
* [http://www.miracleswaiting.org Miracles Waiting, Inc.] , a non-profit organization offering information about embryo donation and providing a venue for potential donors and recipients to contact each other.
* [http://www.embryoadoption.org/ Embryo Adoption Awareness Campaign]

Articles

* [http://www.njrtl.org/core/newsletter_details.asp?ArticleID=68 A Life-Affirming choice for frozen human embryos] from New Jersey Right to Life
* [http://www.adoptionpolicy.org/pdf/embryo_adoption.pdf Defrosting Embryo Adoption: An Examination of Current Practices of Embryo Adoption]
* [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=893619 Embryo Donation: Unresolved Legal Issues in the Transfer of Surplus Cryopreserved Embryos]
* [http://papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm?abstract_id=912322 Embryo Donation: The Government Adopts a Cause]
* [http://www.library.ubc.ca/law/abstracts/baldassi.html Babies or Blastocysts, Parents or Progenitors? Embryo Donation and the Concept of Adoption]


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