Gastrin releasing peptide

Gastrin releasing peptide

Gastrin-releasing peptide, also known as GRP, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: GRP gastrin-releasing peptide| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=2922| accessdate = ]

PBB_Summary
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summary_text = This gene encodes a member of the bombesin-like family of gastrin-releasing peptides. Its preproprotein, following cleavage of a signal peptide, is further processed to produce either the 27 aa gastrin-releasing peptide or the 10 aa neuromedin C. These smaller peptides regulate numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation. These peptides are also likely to play a role in human cancers of the lung, colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, and prostate. Alternative splicing results in multiple transcript variants encoding different isoforms.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: GRP gastrin-releasing peptide| url = http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sites/entrez?Db=gene&Cmd=ShowDetailView&TermToSearch=2922| accessdate = ]

Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) is released by the post-ganglionic fibres of the vagus nerve which innervate the G cells of the stomach and stimulate them to release gastrin. GRP is also involved in the biology of the circadian system, playing a role in the signalling of light to the master circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Furthermore GRP seems to mediate certain aspects of stress.

This is the reason for the observed fact that atropine does not block the vagal effect on gastrin release.

Gastrin-releasing peptide (GRP) is a regulatory human peptide, which acts to elicit gastrin release and regulates gastric acid secretion and motor function. Merali Z, McIntosh J, Anisman H (2000). "Role of bombesin-related peptides in the control of food intake.". Neuropeptides 33 (5): 376–86. doi:10.1054/npep.1999.0054. PMID 10657515]

The GRP gene is located on chromosome 18, and preproGRP (the unprocessed form of GRP) is encoded in three exons separated by two introns. PreproGRP begins with signal peptidase cleavage to generate the proGRP, which is thenprocessed (by proteolytic cleavages), to form smaller GRP peptides.

These smaller peptides are released by the post-ganglionic fibres of the vagus nerve which innervate the G cells of the stomach and stimulate them to release gastrin. GRP regulates numerous functions of the gastrointestinal and central nervous systems, including release of gastrointestinal hormones, smooth muscle cell contraction, and epithelial cell proliferation. These peptides are also likely to play a role in human cancers of the lung, colon, stomach, pancreas, breast, and prostate.

GRP is also involved in the biology of the circadian system, playing a role in the signalling of light to the master circadian oscillator in the suprachiasmatic nuclei of the hypothalamus. Furthermore GRP seems to mediate certain aspects of stress.

This is the reason for the observed fact that atropine does not block the vagal effect on gastrin release.

References

Further reading

PBB_Further_reading
citations =
*cite journal | author=Merali Z, McIntosh J, Anisman H |title=Role of bombesin-related peptides in the control of food intake |journal=Neuropeptides |volume=33 |issue= 5 |pages= 376–86 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10657515 |doi= 10.1054/npep.1999.0054
*cite journal | author=Baraniuk JN, Lundgren JD, Shelhamer JH, Kaliner MA |title=Gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) binding sites in human bronchi |journal=Neuropeptides |volume=21 |issue= 2 |pages= 81–4 |year= 1992 |pmid= 1557184 |doi=10.1016/0143-4179(92)90518-2
*cite journal | author=Spindel ER, Zilberberg MD, Habener JF, Chin WW |title=Two prohormones for gastrin-releasing peptide are encoded by two mRNAs differing by 19 nucleotides |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=83 |issue= 1 |pages= 19–23 |year= 1986 |pmid= 3001723 |doi=10.1073/pnas.83.1.19
*cite journal | author=Sausville EA, Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Spindel ER, "et al." |title=Expression of the gastrin-releasing peptide gene in human small cell lung cancer. Evidence for alternative processing resulting in three distinct mRNAs |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=261 |issue= 5 |pages= 2451–7 |year= 1986 |pmid= 3003116 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Bertness V, Kirsch I, "et al." |title=Human gastrin-releasing peptide gene maps to chromosome band 18q21 |journal=Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. |volume=13 |issue= 1 |pages= 81–6 |year= 1987 |pmid= 3027901 |doi=10.1007/BF02422302
*cite journal | author=Naylor SL, Sakaguchi AY, Spindel E, Chin WW |title=Human gastrin-releasing peptide gene is located on chromosome 18 |journal=Somat. Cell Mol. Genet. |volume=13 |issue= 1 |pages= 87–91 |year= 1987 |pmid= 3027902 |doi=10.1007/BF02422303
*cite journal | author=Lebacq-Verheyden AM, Kasprzyk PG, Raum MG, "et al." |title=Posttranslational processing of endogenous and of baculovirus-expressed human gastrin-releasing peptide precursor |journal=Mol. Cell. Biol. |volume=8 |issue= 8 |pages= 3129–35 |year= 1989 |pmid= 3211139 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Spindel ER, Chin WW, Price J, "et al." |title=Cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding human gastrin-releasing peptide |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=81 |issue= 18 |pages= 5699–703 |year= 1984 |pmid= 6207529 |doi=10.1073/pnas.81.18.5699
*cite journal | author=Benya RV, Kusui T, Pradhan TK, "et al." |title=Expression and characterization of cloned human bombesin receptors |journal=Mol. Pharmacol. |volume=47 |issue= 1 |pages= 10–20 |year= 1995 |pmid= 7838118 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Moody TW, Zia F, Venugopal R, "et al." |title=Corticotropin-releasing factor stimulates cyclic AMP, arachidonic acid release, and growth of lung cancer cells |journal=Peptides |volume=15 |issue= 2 |pages= 281–5 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8008632 |doi=10.1016/0196-9781(94)90013-2
*cite journal | author=Frankel A, Tsao MS, Viallet J |title=Receptor subtype expression and responsiveness to bombesin in cultured human bronchial epithelial cells |journal=Cancer Res. |volume=54 |issue= 7 |pages= 1613–6 |year= 1994 |pmid= 8137267 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Lü F, Jin T, Drucker DJ |title=Proglucagon gene expression is induced by gastrin-releasing peptide in a mouse enteroendocrine cell line |journal=Endocrinology |volume=137 |issue= 9 |pages= 3710–6 |year= 1996 |pmid= 8756537 |doi=10.1210/en.137.9.3710
*cite journal | author=Bertenshaw GP, Turk BE, Hubbard SJ, "et al." |title=Marked differences between metalloproteases meprin A and B in substrate and peptide bond specificity |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=276 |issue= 16 |pages= 13248–55 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11278902 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M011414200
*cite journal | author=Lambeir AM, Durinx C, Proost P, "et al." |title=Kinetic study of the processing by dipeptidyl-peptidase IV/CD26 of neuropeptides involved in pancreatic insulin secretion |journal=FEBS Lett. |volume=507 |issue= 3 |pages= 327–30 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11696365 |doi=10.1016/S0014-5793(01)02982-9
*cite journal | author=Mason S, Smart D, Marshall IC, "et al." |title=Identification and characterisation of functional bombesin receptors in human astrocytes |journal=Eur. J. Pharmacol. |volume=438 |issue= 1-2 |pages= 25–34 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11906707 |doi=10.1016/S0014-2999(02)01268-2
*cite journal | author=Carroll RE, Matkowskyj K, Saunthararajah Y, "et al." |title=Contribution of gastrin-releasing peptide and its receptor to villus development in the murine and human gastrointestinal tract |journal=Mech. Dev. |volume=113 |issue= 2 |pages= 121–30 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11960700 |doi=10.1016/S0925-4773(02)00032-1
*cite journal | author=Uchida K, Kojima A, Morokawa N, "et al." |title=Expression of progastrin-releasing peptide and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor mRNA transcripts in tumor cells of patients with small cell lung cancer |journal=J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol. |volume=128 |issue= 12 |pages= 633–40 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12474049 |doi= 10.1007/s00432-002-0392-8
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Schneider J, Philipp M, Velcovsky HG, "et al." |title=Pro-gastrin-releasing peptide (ProGRP), neuron specific enolase (NSE), carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and cytokeratin 19-fragments (CYFRA 21-1) in patients with lung cancer in comparison to other lung diseases |journal=Anticancer Res. |volume=23 |issue= 2A |pages= 885–93 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12820318 |doi=

External links

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