- Self access language learning centers
Self access language learning centers are educational facilities designed for student learning that is at least partially, if not fully self-directed. Students have access to resources ranging from photocopied exercises with answer keys to computer software for language learning. These centers are an outgrowth of a style of learning that can go by several names:
learner-centered approach, learner autonomyor self-directed learning. These centers exist primarily in Asia, Europeand North America. Use of such facilities and the pedagogical theory they are based upon has its advantages and disadvantages. Proper use can result in a feeling of empowerment and better learning outcomes, but getting to the point where students and teachers can exploit them effectively can be problematic. For this reason, the structure of established self access centers varies from completely student-directed work with classroom immersion to those which provide primarily tutor or instructor guidance for student work.
Self access language learning promotes the approach where students study independently choosing from among different resources that are available. The theory behind this style of learning is that students, especially foreign language students, learn better if they have say in how they learn.cite web |first=Johanna |last=Klassen |date=1998 |title=Does Self-Access Language Learning at the Tertiary Level Really Work? |url=http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/ajelt/vol8/art4.htm] Self-access language learning is closely related to
learner-centered approach, learner autonomyand self-directed learningas all focus on student responsibility and active participation for his/her own learning.cite journal | last =Carter | first = Beverly-Anne | title = Begin with Beliefs: Exploring the Relationship between Beliefs and Learner Autonomy among Advanced Students | journal = Texas Papers in Foreign and Second Language Learning and Teaching | volume =4 | issue =1 | pages = 1–20 | date = Fall 1999 | id = ED 467863 (ERIC) | accessdate = 2007-09-13] This style of instruction is most often done in the setting of a self-contained learning environment or self-access center.
Self-access centers can be as simple as a classroom set aside with dictionaries and shelves of paper-based exercises to state-of-the-art digital centers with various types of computer- and Internet-based resources. What resources are available and how students are guided to use them depend on the financial resources available and how much learner autonomy an institution decides to give students.cite web |first=Michael |last=Rodden |date=2007 |title=Self-Access: A framework for diversity |url=http://www.teachingenglish.org.uk/think/resources/self_access.shtml]
For more information about self-access learing, many references are available on the learner autonomy bibliography page.cite web |title=Bibliography of Learner Autonomy |url=http://www.hayo.nl/autonomy.html ]
Examples of self-access centers
*The Multimedia English Learning Center at the
National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technologyin Taiwanhas 60 computers, 2 service desks, 2 counseling rooms and discussion areas with sofas and tables. It is divided into two sections: a self-access program based on the university's intranetand self-directed learning materials available in the facility. It has 3 pedagogical goals: 1) to support English courses by reducing teacher workload 2) to make up for the limited time that large classes have for listening and speaking and 3) to foster autonomy and self-directive study strategies among students.cite conference | first =Jeng-yih | last =Hsu | title =Integrating a Writing-across-curriculum Program into a Self-access Learning Center. | booktitle =Proceedings of the 24th Conference on English Teaching and Learning | publisher = ERIC 496122 | date = May 6, 2007| location = Taiwan| accessdate =2007-09-12]
*The Language Learning Center at
Offutt Air Force Base, Nebraska USAoffers holds classes in 10 different language and provides self-learning materials in 57 languages. The center also has 22 computers with access to online language classes as well as a variety of self-paced learning materials.cite journal |last=Singleton |first=Malinda |title=Continuous learning: new Language Learning Center enhances Air Force linguists skills. |journal=Spokesman Magazine |date= October 1, 2006|url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-153518693.html |accessdate=2007-09-05 ]
*The Self-Access Center at the
City University of Hong Kongstresses the development of independent learning skills for its students. It provides courses and a "language learning advisor" to help students design self-study programs and otherwise utilize the center.cite web |title=Self Access and Independent Learning |url=http://www.cityu.edu.hk/elc/elc/facilities/sac_ielts.html ]
*The English Language Self-Access Center at the
University of Aucklandoffers both online and face-to-face language support. An electronic learning environment offers access to digitalised language learning materials and supports the development of learner autonomy. Language advisory sessions are offered both online and in the on-campus centre, along with a range of workshops. A 'student monitoring system' automatically monitors student performance and matches this against students' stated language learning goals. It actively intervenes in the learning process where necessary. cite web |title=English Language Self-Access Centre |url=http://www.elsac.auckland.ac.nz ]
Advantages and disadvantages of implementing and integrating self-access learning centers
Some of the advantages of this form of learning is that students at the very least set the pace of their work. Depending on the individual center, students can also set the level and content of their work. Students can use these centers voluntarily or can have assignments to complete there. The major advantage, therefore, is flexibility, with the purpose of giving the students themselves the opportunity to tailor the course more to their learning needs and styles than a more traditional mode of teaching.
Use of multiple technologies in a more independent setting has been shown to improve motivation and increase students’ ability to work independently by taking more responsibility for their own learning. Students also report feeling more “empowered” by such modes of instruction.cite journal |last=Stepp-Greany |first=Jonita |title=Student Perceptions On Language Learning in a Technological Environment: Implications for the New Millennium. |journal=Language, Learning & Technology |date=
January 1, 2002|url=http://www.highbeam.com/doc/1G1-82135559.html |accessdate=2007-09-05 ]
The major disadvantages of this mode has basically to do with the ability of both students and teachers to adapt and integrate this method effectively. Many students are not used to working independently, creating the need to provide guidance as to the use of this kind of center, at least in the beginning. [cite web |first=Johanna |last=Klassen |date=1998 |title=Does Self-Access Language Learning at the Tertiary Level Really Work? |url=http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/ajelt/vol8/art4.htm] One study reports that students do not seem to want too much freedom in their use of technology. 73% reported that they preferred a regularly scheduled lab time, with the facilitative presence of a teacher. Significantly less than half reported that they preferred completely free access to the lab or to do work at home on their own computer.
For teachers, the 'letting go' of control can be equally disorienting and it may seem that giving students such control depreciates teachers' skills and experience. Traditionally, teachers are used to being the center of student activity, controlling how, when and why students do what they do. Students have been expected to work in "lock-step" with the teacher orchestrating what students do to a very high degree. Teachers, in turn, rely on textbooks that allow little variation. Use of self-access center materials steer students way from the rigidity and "security" of this paradigm, causing teachers to lose their "all-powerful" and "all-knowing" position. This can cause problems integrating a self-access center due to political and institutional constraints. cite journal | last = Johnson | first = Frances | coauthors = Delarche, Marion; Marshall, Nicholas; Wurr, Adrian; Edwards, Jeffrey | date = Spring | year = 1998 | title = Changing Teachers Roles in the Foreign Language Classroom. | journal = Texas Papers in Foreign Language Education | volume = 3 | issue = 2 | pages = 71–89 | id = ED423 676 (ERIC)]
Types of self-access learning centers
Fully Independent Learning - :In its most extreme form of self-directed learning, students set their own curriculum and goals, self-accessing their progress. Teachers function only as "counsellors" who give feedback after students evaluate their learning.
Semi-Guided Learning -:To address problems with student use of self-access centers, some centers make tutors available to give academic and a kind of psychological support. Students may or may not choose how self-directed or tutor-dependent they choose to be. While the academic effectiveness of a semi-independent study course has not been proven, student response to such a scheme in Hong Kong was very positive.cite journal |last=Lai |first=Lai Kwan |title= A Tutor-Guided Learning Scheme in a Self-Access Centre |journal=The Internet TESL Journal |date=September, 1999 |url=http://www.cuhk.edu.hk/ajelt/vol8/art4.htm |accessdate=2007-09-07 ]
Self-access center combined with English-language writing center - :In several universities in
Taiwan, several universities such as National Taiwan University, Fu Jen Catholic Universityand National Sun Yat-Sen University, have joined the two facilities. While the union of the two facilities has not proved to provide any benefits, the idea has been promoted as a way to enhance both general writing skills, which in turn support the acquisition of other language skills such as reading, speaking and listening.
Online self-access learning -:Online self-access, also often referred to as online language support, is an increasingly common type of self-access learning. In its most basic form, online self-access involves insitutions making language learning materials available online to students. More elaborate forms include opportunities for supporting learners online (e.g. through advisory sessions), tools for collaborative learning, e-portfolios, and active monitoring of student performance by the software. Examples of such systems include the
University of Auckland's electronic learning environment cite web |title=English Language Self-Access Centre |url=http://www.elsac.auckland.ac.nz ] and 'My English', developed at King Mongkutt University of Technology, in Bangkok, Thailand. cite web |title=My English |url=http://myenglish.kmutt.ac.th]
The KELP Project -:The KELP (Kanda English Language Proficiency) program at
Kanda University of International Studiesin Japanis not a self-access center per se, but rather a program by which all English language classrooms become independent-learning or self-access centers. Work that is typically done in a self-access center as an adjunct to traditional classroom activities become the core of the program. Students, with help from the teacher, create what is essentially their own course. The teacher becomes a "facilitator" who 1) sets up the classroom with needed materials at workstations 2) trains students to make course plans and consults with them to prepare learning contracts and for teacher approval 3) Manages learner assessment by making checking records made by students of their own progress are accurate and 4) Maintains discipline in the classroom.
* [http://www.cityu.edu.hk/elc/elc/index.html English Language Center - City University of Hong Kong]
* [http://llrc.tol.itesm.mx Language Learning Resource Center - ITESM-Campus Toluca]
* [http://www.soka.ac.jp/WLC/self_access/index.html Self Access Center - World Language Center]
* [http://www.auathailand.org/sac.html Learning Center - American University Alumni]
* [http://www.elsac.auckland.ac.nz/ English Language Self Access Centre]
* [http://www.it.uom.gr/elu/self.htm Self Access Center - University of Macedonia]
* [http://www.tu.ac.th/org/litu/salc/salc.htm Self Access Learning Center - Thammasat University, Lituania]
* [http://www.fh-frankfurt.de/de/fachbereiche/uebergreifende_angebote/fachsprachenzentrum/selfaccess_center.html Self-Access Center FH Frankfurt, Germany]
* [http://www.hayo.nl/autonomy.html Bibliography of Learner Autonomy and Self-Access Learning]
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