- Smut (fungus)
The smuts are fungi, mostly
Ustilaginomycetes(of the class Teliomycetae, subphylum Basidiomycota), that cause plant disease.
grasses, notably including cerealcrops such as maize. They initially attack the plant's reproductive system, forming galls which darken and burst, releasing fungal spores which infect other plants nearby.
A smut infestation is controlled by removing and destroying the infected plants. In Agriculture, this process is known as destruction of the initial inoculum.
Sugarcane smutor "culmicolous smut" is caused by the fungus " Ustilago scitaminea". The smut 'whip' is a curved black structure which emerges from the leaf whorl. Sugarcane smut causes significant losses to the economic value of a sugarcanecrop. Sugarcane smut has recently been found in the Eastern Seaboard Areas of Australia, which is one of the world's highest-yielding sugar areas.
Corn smut, (" Ustilago maydis"), which infects maize, is a delicacy in Mexico, and Brazil, originally enjoyed by the Aztecs. It enlarges the ear of corn and fills it with sooty spores. Corn smut causes millions of dollars in crop damage every year. However, the immature galls of corn smut remain a popular delicacy and is deliberately cultivated in some areas as "huitlacoche".
Loose smut, "Ustilago nuda"
Covered smut"Tilletia tritici" (syn. "T. caries") and "T. laevis" (syn. "T. foetida")
* [http://helios.bto.ed.ac.uk/bto/FungalBiology/grassmut.htm#top "Smut Fungi" from Deacon, J: "Fungal Biology", Blackwell Publishing, 2005]
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