Angra Nuclear Power Plant

Angra Nuclear Power Plant

Infobox NPP
Picture = Kernkraftwerk Angra.jpg
Pic_des = Angra Nuclear Power Plant
Country = Brazil
Utility = Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. - Eletronuclear
Built = 1971
Start = January 1, 1985
End =
Reactor = 2
Reactor_MW = 2,007
P_Reactor = 1
P_Reactor = 1
P_Reactor_MW = 1,350
S_Reactor =
El_Prod = 12,983
for_year = 2006
El_Prod_avg = 11,712
Net_Prod = 105,963
WEBSITE =
as_of = July 22, 2007

Angra Nuclear Power Plant is Brazil's sole nuclear power plant. It is located at the Central Nuclear Almirante Álvaro Alberto (CNAAA) on the Itaorna Beach in Angra dos Reis, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. It consists of two Pressurized water reactors, Angra I, with a net output of 657 MWe [ [http://www.eletronuclear.gov.br/perguntas_respostas/perguntas_respostas.php?id_categoria=1&id_subcategoria=2 Eletronuclear - Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. - Pronta Resposta ] ] , first connected to the power grid in 1985 and Angra II, with a net output of 1,350 MWe [ [http://www.eletronuclear.gov.br/perguntas_respostas/perguntas_respostas.php?id_categoria=2&id_subcategoria=5 Eletronuclear - Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. - Pronta Resposta ] ] , connected in 2000. Work on a third reactor, Angra III, with a projected output of 1,350 MWe [ [http://www.eletronuclear.gov.br/perguntas_respostas/perguntas_respostas.php?id_categoria=3&id_subcategoria=7 Eletronuclear - Eletrobrás Termonuclear S.A. - Pronta Resposta ] ] , began in 1984, was halted, and is expected to start again in late 2008 or early 2009. [http://edition.cnn.com/2008/WORLD/americas/07/31/brazil.nuclear/index.html]

Angra I was purchased from Westinghouse of the USA, and the purchase did not include the transfer of sensitive reactor technology. As a result, Angra II was built with German technology, as part of a comprehensive nuclear agreement between Brazil and West Germany signed by President Ernesto Geisel in 1975. The complex was designed to have three PWR units with a total output of around 3,000 MWe and was to be the first of 4 nuclear plants that would be built up to 1990.

The equipment for Angra III, the last phase of the complex, was purchased in 1995 but has been in storage ever since, consuming 50 million dollars a year in maintenance costs.

Though the government of President Luis Inácio Lula da Silva has repeatedly stated its intention to build Angra III and complete the project, it is unlikely that this will happen before 2013. The negative results of Angra have caused the shelving of all other projected nuclear plants in Brazil (Iguape, Peruíbe and São Sebastião).

The complex is administrated by Eletronuclear, a state company with the monopoly in nuclear power generation in Brazil. The complex employs some 3,000 people and generates another 10,000 indirect jobs in Rio de Janeiro state.

The problems with Angra I, II and III construction relate to a number of technical issues during initial construction, and the following political fallout [http://www.21stcenturysciencetech.com/articles/spring01/Brazil_defeats_greenpeace.html] . Many also think that the choice of location for the power plants was very poor. Angra dos Reis city and its neighbors are composed of medium high and high income population, its economy relies in great part on tourism and above all the region is regarded by many as a sanctuary for marine life.

This creates a strong opposition from anti-nuclear NGOs such as Greenpeace and locals that see the project as a menace to the region's economy and well being of its residents. Reflist

External links

* [http://www.uic.com.au/nip95.htm Nuclear power in Brazil]
* [http://www.eletronuclear.gov.br Eletronuclear Official Website]
* [http://www.eletronuclear.gov.br/sys/interna_ingles.asp?IdSecao=12&secao_mae=1 Angra 1 website]
* [http://spectrum.ieee.org/mar06/3070 How Brazil Spun the Atom]


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