- Intraventricular hemorrhage
Name = Intraventricular hemorrhage
Caption = CT scan showing spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage with bleeding in the third and both lateral ventricles and
hydrocephaluscite journal |author=Yadav YR, Mukerji G, Shenoy R, Basoor A, Jain G, Nelson A |title=Endoscopic management of hypertensive intraventricular haemorrhage with obstructive hydrocephalus |journal=BMC Neurol |volume=7 |issue= |pages=1 |year=2007 |pmid=17204141 |pmc=1780056 |doi=10.1186/1471-2377-7-1 |url=http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2377/7/1]
DiseasesDB = 6906
ICD10 = ICD10|I|61|5|i|60
ICD9 = ICD9|431
eMedicineSubj = ped
eMedicineTopic = 2595
An intraventricular hemorrhage (or "IVH") is a bleeding of the brain's
ventricular system, where the cerebrospinal fluidis produced and circulates through towards the subarachnoid space. It can result from physical traumaor from hemorrhaging in stroke.
This type of hemorrhage is particularly common in infants, especially
prematureinfants or those of very low birth weight.Annibale DJ and Hill J. 2006. [http://www.emedicine.com/ped/topic2595.htm Periventricular Hemorrhage-Intraventricular Hemorrhage] . Emedicine.com. Retrieved on June 19, 2007.] The cause of IVH in premature infants, unlike that in older infants, children or adults, is rarely due to trauma. Instead it is thought to result from changes in perfusion of the delicate cellular structures that are present in the growing brain. The lack of blood flow results in cell death and subsequent breakdown of the blood vessel walls, leading to bleeding. While this bleeding can result in further injury, it is itself a marker for injury that has already occurred. Most intraventricular hemorrhages occur in the first 72 hours after birth.
Intraventricular hemorrhage is rare in adultsMayfrank L, Kissler J, Raoofi R, Delsing P, Weis J, Kuker W, and Gilsbach JM. 1997. [http://stroke.ahajournals.org/cgi/content/full/28/1/141 Ventricular Dilatation in Experimental Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Pigs: Characterization of Cerebrospinal Fluid Dynamics and the Effects of Fibrinolytic Treatment] . "Stroke", 28:141–148. Retrieved on
June 19, 2007.] and requires a great deal of force to cause. Thus the hemorrhage usually does not occur without extensive associated damage, and so the outcome is rarely good.Dawodu S. 2007. [http://www.emedicine.com/pmr/topic212.htm "Traumatic Brain Injury: Definition, Epidemiology, Pathophysiology"] Emedicine.com. Retrieved on June 19, 2007.] Vinas FC and Pilitsis J. 2006. [http://www.emedicine.com/med/topic2888.htm "Penetrating Head Trauma."] Emedicine.com.]
Prognosis is also dismal when IVH results from
intracerebral hemorrhagerelated to high blood pressure and is even worse when hydrocephalusfollows. It can result in dangerous increases in intracranial pressureand can cause potentially fatal brain herniation.
Brain contusions and subarachnoid hemorrhages are commonly associated with IVH.LeRoux PD, Haglund MM, Newell DW, Grady MS, and Winn HR. 1992. [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=1407453&dopt=Abstract "Intraventricular hemorrhage in blunt head trauma: an analysis of 43 cases."] "Neurosurgery". Volume 4, pp. 678-84. PMID 1407453. Retrieved on June 19, 2007.] The bleeding can involve the middle communicating arteryor the posterior communicating artery.
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