- Tuchola Forest
The Tuchola Forest ( _pl. Bory Tucholskie; _cs. Tëchòlsczé Bòrë; _de. Tuchler or Tucheler Heide) is a large
forestnear the town of Tuchola("Tucheln") in northern Poland, and lies between the Brda and WdaRivers.
The area was formed during the last
glacial ageand is covered with low hills and more than 900 post-glacial lakes. With 1,200 km² of dense spruceand pineforest, the area is one of the biggest forests in Polandand Central Europe. Since 1996 part of the area has been designated as the Tuchola Forest National Park, covering convert|46.13|km2|sqmi. Approximately 30% of the area is inhabitated by the Kociewiacypeople.
The largest towns in the area are
German Empireera, "Truppenübungsplatz Gruppe" (now ) was a military exercise area in which medical research was conducted, leading to publication of the name in scientific reports of the early 20th century. During World War I, pacifist doctor Georg Friedrich Nicolaiwas banned from Berlin to the remote area which had to be ceded in 1919 to Poland as a result of the Treaty of Versailles.
In 1939, during the Invasion of Poland at the very beginning of
World War II, the major Battle of Tuchola Forestwas fought in the area. Soon, the former military test area was occupied again by German troops [ Heinz Guderian: Erinnerungen eines Soldaten, "Ich hatte am 3.9 ... meinen Sohn Kurt wiedergesehen und mich dabei an den Türmen von Kulm, meiner Geburtsstadt, erfreut, die vom Ostufer der Weichsel herüberwinkten. Am 4.9 ... bei ihren Waldgefechten und endete auf dem alten deutschen Truppenübungsplatz Gruppe westlich Graudenz.", 1951, [http://books.google.com/books?id=vn4ZAAAAIAAJ&dq=%22truppen%C3%BCbungsplatz+gruppe%22&q=%22truppen%C3%BCbungsplatz+gruppe%22&pgis=1#search] ] , and called "Truppenübungsplatz Westpreußen", or by its code name, „Heidekraut“.
Between August 1944 and January 1945, SS troops under
Hans Kammlerand Walter Dornbergercarried out extensive tests of the A-4 missiles ( V-2 rockets), after the test site near Bliznawas discovered by the Home Armyand then bombed by the Allies. Approximately 107 missiles were fired, in southbound direction, for tests and training purposes. In January 1945 the site had to be evacuated before the Red Armyoffensive overran the area.
After World War II the forest was a safe haven for many anti-
communistpartisans, among them Zygmunt Szendzielarz.
* Erich Wernicke: "Wanderungen durch die Tuchler Heide". Kafemann, Danzig 1913 ( [http://kpbc.umk.pl/dlibra/doccontent?from=rss&id=26840 Digitalisat] )
List of V-2 test launches
Rocket launch site
* [http://park.borytucholskie.info/ Bory Tucholskie National Park]
* [http://www.astronautix.com/sites/heikraut.htm Rocket launches at "Heidekraut"]
* [http://www.v2rocket.guide-warsaw.com/index.php?option=com_alberghi&task=detail&Itemid=2&id=1 V2 rocket range Heidekraut today]
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