- Totentanz (Liszt)
Totentanz. Paraphrase on "Dies irae." ( _en. Dance of Death), S.126, is the name of a
symphonicpiece for solo pianoand orchestraby Franz Liszt, which is notable for being based on the Gregorian plainchantmelody " Dies Irae" as well as for daring stylistic innovations. The piece was originally planned in 1838 and completed in 1849; it was then revised twice however, in 1853 and 1859.
Obsession with Death
Some of the titles of Liszt’s pieces, such as "Totentanz", "
Funérailles", " La Lugubre gondola", " Pensée des morts", etc., show the composer's fascination with death. In the young Liszt we can already observe manifestations of his obsession with death, with religion, and with heaven and hell: Liszt was an enthusiastic Catholic, and he devoured Dante's " Divine Comedy". According to Alan Walker, [cite book | last=Walker | first=Alan | authorlink=Alan Walker | title=Franz Liszt: The Virtuoso Years 1811-1847 | publisher=Faber and Faber | date=1983 ] Liszt frequented Parisian "hospitals, gambling casinos and asylums" in the early 1830s, and he even went down into prison dungeons in order to see those condemned to die.
Sources of Inspiration
In the Romantic age, due to a fascination with everything
Medieval, the aspect of fantastic or grotesquely macabre ironyoften replaced the original moral intent. A musical example of such irony can be found in the last movement of the " Symphonie fantastique" by Hector Berliozwhich quotes the medieval (Gregorian) "Dies Irae" ( Day of Judgment) melody in a shockingly modernistic manner. In 1830 Liszt attended the first performance of Berlioz’s "Fantastic" Symphony and was struck by the powerful originality of this work. Liszt’s "Totentanz" (Dance of Death), a set of variationsfor piano and orchestra, is also paraphrasing the "Dies Irae" plainsong.
Another source of inspiration for the young Liszt was the famous
fresco"Triumph of Death" by Francesco Traini(at Liszt's time attributed to Andrea Orcagnaand today also to Buonamico Buffalmacco) in the Campo Santo, Pisa. Liszt had eloped to Italy with his mistress, the Countess d’Agoult, and in 1838 he visited Pisa. Only ten years later, Liszt’s first sketches materialized into a complete version of his "Totentanz". Revisions followed in 1853 and 1859, and its final form was first performed at The Hagueon 15 April 1865 by Liszt’s student Hans von Bülow, to whom the work is dedicated.
Since it is based on Gregorian material, Liszt’s "Totentanz" contains Medieval sounding passages with canonic
counterpoint, but by far the most innovative aspect of the scoring is the shockingly modernistic, even percussive, nature of the piano part. The opening comes surprisingly close to the introduction in Bartók’s Sonata for Two Pianos and Percussion, a work composed almost a hundred years later. This may be no coincidence since Bartók frequently performed Liszt’s "Totentanz". Other modernistic features are the toccatalike sections where the pianist’s repeated notes bleat with diabolic intensity and special sound effects in the orchestra—for example, the " col legno" in the strings sound like shuddering or clanking bones. Richard Pohl(an early biographer) notes, "Every variation discloses some new character—the earnest man, the flighty youth, the scornful doubter, the prayerful monk, the daring soldier, the tender maiden, the playful child."
Like most Liszt pieces, a number of versions exist. Besides the first version of the "Totentanz" a "
De Profundis" version has been prepared from manuscript sources by Ferruccio Busoni(1919). The standard version is the final third version of the piece (1859). Besides these a two pianoas well as a solo piano version by Liszt can be found.
Besides the performances by
Hans von Bülow, Bartók, Rachmaninov and Busoni, performances of historic significance include those of the Liszt student José Vianna da Motta(1945 - Port Nat S IPL 108), as well as György Cziffra(EMI 74012 2), Claudio Arrau, Jorge Bolet(Decca), Arturo Benedetti Michelangeli(1961 - Arkadia HP 507.1; 1962 - Memoria 999-001) and Byron Janis(RCA), and also Valentina Lisitsa.
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