Lymphocyte antigen 96

Lymphocyte antigen 96

Lymphocyte antigen 96, also known as LY96, is a human gene.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: LY96 lymphocyte antigen 96| url =| accessdate = ]

The protein encoded by this gene is involved in binding lipopolysaccharide with TLR 4. It is also known as "MD2".

section_title =
summary_text = The MD-2 protein appears to associate with toll-like receptor 4 on the cell surface and confers responsiveness to lipopolysaccyaride (LPS), thus providing a link between the receptor and LPS signaling.cite web | title = Entrez Gene: LY96 lymphocyte antigen 96| url =| accessdate = ]


Further reading

citations =
*cite journal | author=Shimazu R, Akashi S, Ogata H, "et al." |title=MD-2, a molecule that confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness on Toll-like receptor 4. |journal=J. Exp. Med. |volume=189 |issue= 11 |pages= 1777–82 |year= 1999 |pmid= 10359581 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Kato K, Morrison AM, Nakano T, "et al." |title=ESOP-1, a secreted protein expressed in the hematopoietic, nervous, and reproductive systems of embryonic and adult mice. |journal=Blood |volume=96 |issue= 1 |pages= 362–4 |year= 2000 |pmid= 10891475 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Dziarski R, Wang Q, Miyake K, "et al." |title=MD-2 enables Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2)-mediated responses to lipopolysaccharide and enhances TLR2-mediated responses to Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their cell wall components. |journal=J. Immunol. |volume=166 |issue= 3 |pages= 1938–44 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11160242 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Schromm AB, Lien E, Henneke P, "et al." |title=Molecular genetic analysis of an endotoxin nonresponder mutant cell line: a point mutation in a conserved region of MD-2 abolishes endotoxin-induced signaling. |journal=J. Exp. Med. |volume=194 |issue= 1 |pages= 79–88 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11435474 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Abreu MT, Vora P, Faure E, "et al." |title=Decreased expression of Toll-like receptor-4 and MD-2 correlates with intestinal epithelial cell protection against dysregulated proinflammatory gene expression in response to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. |journal=J. Immunol. |volume=167 |issue= 3 |pages= 1609–16 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11466383 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Visintin A, Mazzoni A, Spitzer JA, Segal DM |title=Secreted MD-2 is a large polymeric protein that efficiently confers lipopolysaccharide sensitivity to Toll-like receptor 4. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=98 |issue= 21 |pages= 12156–61 |year= 2001 |pmid= 11593030 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.211445098
*cite journal | author=Akashi S, Nagai Y, Ogata H, "et al." |title=Human MD-2 confers on mouse Toll-like receptor 4 species-specific lipopolysaccharide recognition. |journal=Int. Immunol. |volume=13 |issue= 12 |pages= 1595–9 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11717200 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Abreu MT, Arnold ET, Thomas LS, "et al." |title=TLR4 and MD-2 expression is regulated by immune-mediated signals in human intestinal epithelial cells. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 23 |pages= 20431–7 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11923281 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M110333200
*cite journal | author=Re F, Strominger JL |title=Monomeric recombinant MD-2 binds toll-like receptor 4 tightly and confers lipopolysaccharide responsiveness. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 26 |pages= 23427–32 |year= 2002 |pmid= 11976338 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M202554200
*cite journal | author=Latz E, Visintin A, Lien E, "et al." |title=Lipopolysaccharide rapidly traffics to and from the Golgi apparatus with the toll-like receptor 4-MD-2-CD14 complex in a process that is distinct from the initiation of signal transduction. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=277 |issue= 49 |pages= 47834–43 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12324469 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M207873200
*cite journal | author=Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH, "et al." |title=Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=99 |issue= 26 |pages= 16899–903 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12477932 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.242603899
*cite journal | author=Schröder NW, Morath S, Alexander C, "et al." |title=Lipoteichoic acid (LTA) of Streptococcus pneumoniae and Staphylococcus aureus activates immune cells via Toll-like receptor (TLR)-2, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP), and CD14, whereas TLR-4 and MD-2 are not involved. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=278 |issue= 18 |pages= 15587–94 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12594207 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M212829200
*cite journal | author=Mullen GE, Kennedy MN, Visintin A, "et al." |title=The role of disulfide bonds in the assembly and function of MD-2. |journal=Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. |volume=100 |issue= 7 |pages= 3919–24 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12642668 |doi= 10.1073/pnas.0630495100
*cite journal | author=Ohnishi T, Muroi M, Tanamoto K |title=MD-2 is necessary for the toll-like receptor 4 protein to undergo glycosylation essential for its translocation to the cell surface. |journal=Clin. Diagn. Lab. Immunol. |volume=10 |issue= 3 |pages= 405–10 |year= 2004 |pmid= 12738639 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Thompson PA, Tobias PS, Viriyakosol S, "et al." |title=Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-binding protein inhibits responses to cell-bound LPS. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=278 |issue= 31 |pages= 28367–71 |year= 2003 |pmid= 12754215 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M302921200
*cite journal | author=Visintin A, Latz E, Monks BG, "et al." |title=Lysines 128 and 132 enable lipopolysaccharide binding to MD-2, leading to Toll-like receptor-4 aggregation and signal transduction. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=278 |issue= 48 |pages= 48313–20 |year= 2004 |pmid= 12960171 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M306802200
*cite journal | author=Re F, Strominger JL |title=Separate functional domains of human MD-2 mediate Toll-like receptor 4-binding and lipopolysaccharide responsiveness. |journal=J. Immunol. |volume=171 |issue= 10 |pages= 5272–6 |year= 2004 |pmid= 14607928 |doi=
*cite journal | author=Hamann L, Kumpf O, Müller M, "et al." |title=A coding mutation within the first exon of the human MD-2 gene results in decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling. |journal=Genes Immun. |volume=5 |issue= 4 |pages= 283–8 |year= 2005 |pmid= 15057266 |doi= 10.1038/sj.gene.6364068
*cite journal | author=Gruber A, Mancek M, Wagner H, "et al." |title=Structural model of MD-2 and functional role of its basic amino acid clusters involved in cellular lipopolysaccharide recognition. |journal=J. Biol. Chem. |volume=279 |issue= 27 |pages= 28475–82 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15111623 |doi= 10.1074/jbc.M400993200
*cite journal | author=Jia HP, Kline JN, Penisten A, "et al." |title=Endotoxin responsiveness of human airway epithelia is limited by low expression of MD-2. |journal=Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol. |volume=287 |issue= 2 |pages= L428–37 |year= 2004 |pmid= 15121639 |doi= 10.1152/ajplung.00377.2003

External links


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