- Roll over protection structure
Roll Over Protection Structure (ROPS) refers to operator compartment structures (usually cabs or frames) intended to protect equipment operators from injuries caused by vehicle s or
Commonly found on
heavy equipment(i.e. tractors) used in constructionand agriculture, ROPS structures are defined by various regulatory agencies, including the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration(OSHA). ["See" OSHA " [http://www.osha.gov/pls/oshaweb/owadisp.show_document?p_table=FEDERAL_REGISTER&p_id=18478 Roll-Over Protective Structures, Direct Final Rule.] "] The regulations include both a strength requirement as well as an energy absorption requirement of the structure. Some dump trucks add a protrusion to their boxes that cover the operators compartment for ROPS purposes.
In the US, ROPS designs have to be certified by a Professional Engineer, who will normally require a destructive test. The structure will be tested at a reduced temperature (where the metal is more brittle), or fabricated from materials that have satisfactory low temperature performance.
National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health(USA) believes that ROPS and proper seatbeltuse on tractorscan eliminate nearly all fatalities caused by tractor and lawn moweroverturns. [ "See" National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US) " [http://0-www.cdc.gov.mill1.sjlibrary.org/niosh/programs/ti/r2p.html NIOSH Program Portfolio: Traumatic Injury: Selected Research-to-Practice Efforts Addressing Traumatic Injury Problems: Automatically deployed roll-over-protection structure (ROPS).] "] (Without a seatbelt, the rider may be thrown from the tractor during the overturn, and thus left unprotected by the ROPS). [National Agricultural Safety Database(USA) " [http://www.cdc.gov/nasd/docs/d001101-d001200/d001127/d001127.html PSA Radio Script: Roll-over Protection Structures.] ] "]
Some tractor operators have raised concerns about using ROPS in low-clearance environments, such as in orchards and buildings. In response, NIOSH developed an Automatically Deploying Rollover Protective Structure (AutoROPS) which stays in a lowered position until a rollover condition is determined, at which time it deploys to a fully extended and locked position. It is currently working with manufacturers to streamline the commercialization of this technology. [National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (US) " [http://0-www.cdc.gov.mill1.sjlibrary.org/niosh/programs/ti/r2p.html NIOSH Program Portfolio: Traumatic Injury: Selected Research-to-Practice Efforts Addressing Traumatic Injury Problems: Automatically deployed roll-over-protection structure (ROPS).] "]
Some automobile models have begun to adopt the phrase, substituting "system" for "structure" in the ROPS acronym, notably the
Volvo C70 convertiblemodels, and Jaguar XK. Their ROPS structures consist of two pyrotechnically charged roll hoops hidden behind the rear seats that will pop up in the case of a roll-over to protect the occupants. If the roof is up, the system will still work, in effect shattering the rear window at the same time.
Active Rollover Protection
* European Economic Community. " [http://eur-lex.europa.eu/smartapi/cgi/sga_doc?smartapi!celexplus!prod!DocNumber&lg=en&type_doc=Directive&an_doc=1987&nu_doc=402 Council Directive 87/402/EEC of 25 June 1987 on roll- over protection structures mounted in front of the driver's seat on narrow-track wheeled agricultural and forestry tractors.] "
* [http://apps.leg.wa.gov/wac/default.aspx?cite=296-155-960 ROPS test procedure] (US State of Washington)
* [http://media.ford.com/newsroom/feature_display.cfm?release=22841 Jaguar and Volvo Offer Safety and Excitement In New Convertibles]
* Jaguar: [http://www.jaguar.com.au/uk/en/_popups/xk_convertible_rollover_demo.htm?route=_uk_en_vehicles_xk_safety_New_XK_Safety@__link__InfoBlockLink_9 Animation of roll hoops extending]
* [http://age-web.age.uiuc.edu/faculty/teg/Research/BiosystemsAutomation/SafetyORE/AdaptiveTractorOverturnPredictionSystem.pdf Adaptive Tractor Overturn Prediction System] .
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