Infobox Ethnic group
poptime=1.2 million [http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6982266.stm]
popplace=flag|Niger: 720,000 (1998)
flag|Mali: 440,000 (1991)
flag|Algeria: 25,000 (1987)
flag|Burkina Faso: 60,000 (1991)
flag|Libya: 17,000 (1993)
langs=The Tuareg language(s) (Tamasheq, Tamajeq, Tamahaq)
The Tuareg (also "Twareg" or "Touareg", Amazigh: Imuhagh / Itargiyen, besides regional ethnyms) are a
nomadic pastoralistpeople, and are the principal inhabitants of the Saharan interior of North Africa. [cite web | url=http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/africa/6982266.stm | title=Q&A: Tuareg unrest | publisher=BBC | accessdate=2008-01-04] cite web |url=http://africa.si.edu/exhibits/tuareg/who.html |title=Who are the Tuareg? |publisher=Smithsonian Institution |accessdate=2007-11-03] They call themselves variously "Kel Tamasheq" or "Kel Tamajaq" ("Speakers of Tamasheq"), "Imuhagh", "Imazaghan" or "Imashaghen" ("the Free people"), or "Kel Tagelmust", i.e., "People of the Veil". [See Rodd 1926.] The name "Tuareg" was applied to them by early explorers and historians (since Leo Africanus).fact|date=January 2008
The origin and meaning of the name "Twareg" has long been debated with various etymologies advanced, although it would appear that "Twārəg" is derived from the "
broken plural" of "Tārgi", a name whose former meaning was "inhabitant of "Targa" (the Tuareg name of the Libyan region commonly known as Fezzan. "Targa" in Berber means "(drainage) channel", see Alojali "et al." 2003: 656, "s.v." "Targa").
The Tuareg today are found mostly in
West Africa, but, like many in Northern Africa, were once nomads throughout the Sahara. They have a little-used but ancient script known as the tifinaɤ.
Descended from Berbers in the region that is now
Libya, the Tuareg are descendants of ancient Saharan peoples described by Herodotus, who mentions the ancient Libyan people, the Garamantes. Archaeological testimony is the ruins of Germa. Later, they expanded southward, into the Sahel.
For over two millennia, the Tuareg operated the trans-Saharan caravan trade connecting the great cities on the southern edge of the Sahara via five desert trade routes to the northern (
Mediterranean) coast of Africa.The Tuareg adopted camelnomadism along with its distinctive form of social organization from camel-herding Arabs about two thousand years ago, when the camel was introduced to the Sahara from Arabia. Like numerous African and other groups in pre-modern times, the Tuareg once took captives, either for trade or for domestic purposes; those who were not sold became assimilated into the Tuareg community. Captive servants and herdsmen formed a component of the division of labor in camel nomadism.
In the late nineteenth century, the Tuareg resisted the French
invasionof their Central Saharan homelands for the purpose of colonization. Tuareg broadswords were no match for the more advanced weapons of French squadrons, and after numerous massacres on both sides, [ cite web |url=http://www.africamission-mafr.org/foucauld2.htm |title= Charles de Foucauld - Sera béatifié à l'automne 2005|accessdate=2007-11-03] the Tuareg were subdued and required to sign treaties in Mali1905 and Niger1917. In southern Algeria, the French met some of the strongest resistance from the AhaggarTuareg. Their Amenokal, traditional chief Moussa ag Amastan, fought numerous battles in defense of the region. Finally, Tuareg territories were taken under French governance and their confederations were largely dismantled and reorganized.
Before French colonization, the Tuareg were organized into loose confederations, each consisting of a dozen or so tribes. Each of the main groups had a traditional leader called "Amenokal" along with an assembly of tribal chiefs ("imɤaran", singular "amɤar"). The groups were the "
Kel Ahaggar", " Kel Ajjer", " Kel Ayr", "Adrar n Fughas", "Iwəlləmədan", and "Kel Gres".
Following the independence of African countries in 1960s, Tuareg territory was artificially divided into modern nations:
Niger, Mali, Algeria, Libya, and Burkina Faso.
Long-standing competition for resources in the
Sahelhas impacted Tuareg conflicts with neighboring African groups, especially after political disruption and economic constraints following French colonization and independence, tight restrictions placed on nomadization, high population growth, and desertificationexacerbated by global warmingand the increased firewood needs of growing cities. Today, some Tuareg are experimenting with farming; some have been forced to abandon herding, and seek jobs in towns and cities.
Mali, a Tuareg uprising resurfaced in the Adrar N'Fughasmountains in the 1960s, following Mali's independence. Several tuareg joined, including eg tuareg from the Adrar des Iforasin northeastern Mali, ... The 1960 rebellion was a fight between a group of tuareg against the independent state of Mali, which was then only recently formed. The revolt was military suppressed by the Malian Army and this suppression created a resentment with the Tuareg which finally lead to the second uprising. This second uprising was in May 1990. At this time, in the aftermath of a clash between government soldiers and Tuareg outside a prison in Tchin-Tabaraden, Niger, Tuaregs in both Mali and Niger claimed autonomy for their traditional homeland: ( Tenere, capital Agadez, in Niger and the Azawadand Kidalregions of Mali). Deadly clashes between Tuareg fighters (led by people as Mano Dayak) and the military of both countries followed, with deaths numbering well into the thousands. Negotiations initiated by France and Algerialed to peace agreements ( January 11, 1992in Mali and 1995 in Niger). Both agreements called for decentralization of national power and guaranteed the integration of Tuareg resistance fighters into the countries' respective national armies.
Major fighting between the Tuareg resistance and government security forces ended after the 1995 and 1996 agreements, but in 2004, sporadic fighting continued in Niger between government forces and groups struggling to obtain Tuareg independence. In 2007, a new surge in violence occurred.
Traditional social stratification
Traditionally, Tuareg society is hierarchal, with
nobilityand vasals. Each Tuareg clan ("tawshet") is made up of several family groups, led by their collective chiefs, the "amghar". A series of tribes "tawsheten" may bond together under an Amenokal, forming a "Kel" clan confederation. Tuareg self identify only as being of their specific Kel which means "those of". E.g. Kel Dinnig (those of the east), Kel Ataram (those of the west).
The work of pastoralism was specialized according to social class. Tels are ruled by the "imúšaɤ" ("Imajaghan", "The Proud and Free") nobility, warrior-aristocrats who organized group defense, livestock raids, and the long-distance caravan trade. Below them were a number of specialised metier castes. The "ímɤad" ("Imghad", sing. "Amghid"), the second rank of Tuareg society, were free vassal-herdsmen and warriors, who pastured and tended most of the confederation's livestock. Formerly bonded vassals of specific "Imajaghan", they are said by tradition to be descended from nobility in the distant past, and thus maintain a degree of social distance from lower orders. Traditionally, some merchant castes had a higher status than all but the nobility among their more settled compatriots to the south. With time, the difference between the two castes has eroded in some places, following the economic fortunes of the two groups."Imajaghan" have traditionally disdained certain types of labor and prided themselves in their warrior skills. The existence of lower servile and semi servile classes has allowed for the development of highly ritualised poetic, sport, and courtship traditions. Following colonial subjection, independence, and the famines of the 1970s and 1980s, noble classes have more and more been forced to abandon their caste differences and have taken on labor and lifestyles they might traditionally have rejected.
After the adoption of Islam, a separate class of religious clerics, the "Ineslemen"
marabouts, also became integral to Tuareg social structure. Following the decimation of many clans' noble "Imajaghan" caste in the colonial wars of the 19th and 20th centuries, the "Ineslemen" gained leadership in some clans, despite their often servile origins. Traditionally "Ineslemen" clans had been unarmed, providing spiritual guidance for the nobility, and receiving protection and alms in return.
"Inhædˤæn" ("Inadan"), were a blacksmith-client caste who fabricated and repaired the saddles, tools, household equipment and other material needs of the community. In most communities the "Inadin" were freedmen drawn from the servile "éklan" caste and considered outside the Tel, and thus outside Tuareg society proper. [Samuel Decalo. Historical Dictionary of Niger. Scarecrow Press, London and New Jersey (1979). ISBN 0810812290. "See specific entries for each caste / clan title".]
Bonded castes and slaves
As did many other ethnic groups in West Africa, the Tuareg once held slaves ("éklan" / "Ikelan" in
Tamasheq, "Bouzou" in Hausa, "Bella" in Songhai). Tuareg skin color in general is considerably darker than most Mediterranean Berbers, and lighter, in general, than sub-Saharan populations. The Tuareg refer to themselves as "red-skinned," like most other Saharan peoples including the Maures, and Tubu.Fact|date=May 2008 Slaves were taken as prisoners of war as the Tuareg moved south beginning in the 11th century AD, and many slaves may have originated among Songhay, Djerma and Hausa communities, groups that also held slaves. These "éklan" once formed a distinct social class in Tuareg society. Slaves lived near their owners as domestic servants and herders, and functioned as part of the family, with close social interactions. Some Tuareg noble and vassal men married slaves, and their children became freemen. In this sense, "éklan" formed distinct sub-communities: a class held in an inherited serfdomlike condition, common in pre-colonial West Africa. French colonial governments passed legislation to abolish slavery but did not enforce it; this was more in the interest of dismantling the traditional Tuareg political economy, which depended on slave labor for herding, as well as "pacification" of the fiercely resistant Tuareg, than a blanket liberation of slaves. [
* [http://horizon.documentation.ird.fr/exl-doc/pleins_textes/pleins_textes_5/b_fdi_04-05/05798.pdf Edouard Bernus. "Les palmeraies de l'Aïr", Revue de l'Occident Musulman et de la Méditerranée, 11, (1972) pp.37-50] .
* Frederick Brusberg. Production and Exchange in the Saharan Air, in Current Anthropology, Vol. 26, No. 3. (Jun., 1985), pp. 394-395. "Field research on the econmoics of the Aouderas valley, 1984."
* Samuel Decalo. Historical Dictionary of Niger. Scarecrow Press, London and New Jersey (1979). ISBN 0810812290
* Jolijn Geels. Niger. Bradt London and Globe Pequot New York (2006). ISBN 1841621528.
* Michael J. Mortimore. The Changing Resources of Sedentary Communities in Air, Southern Sahara, in Geographical Review, Vol. 62, No. 1. (Jan., 1972), pp. 71-91.] While post independence states have sought to outlaw slavery, results have been mixed, and old caste relationships remain in many places. [
* [http://www.antislavery.org/homepage/resources/PDF/Full%2520English%2520Slavery%2520in%2520Niger.pdf Anti-Slavery International & Association Timidira, Galy kadir Abdelkader, ed. Niger: Slavery in Historical, Legal and Contemporary Perspectives] . March 2004.
* [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/programmes/from_our_own_correspondent/4250709.stm Born to be a slave in Niger] By Hilary Andersson, BBC Africa Correspondent, Niger.
* [http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2002/12/1206_021205_salakkayak.html Kayaking to Timbuktu, Writer Sees Slave Trade, More] .
* [http://abcnews.go.com/International/Story?id=813618&page=1 The Shackles of Slavery in Niger] .
* [http://www.irinnews.org/report.aspx?reportid=53497 NIGER: Slavery - an unbroken chain] .
* [http://www.csmonitor.com/2005/0310/p07s01-woaf.html On the way to freedom, Niger's slaves stuck in limbo] ] According to the
Travel Channelshow " Bob Geldofin Africa", the descendants of those slaves (known as the "Bella") are still slaves in all but name. In Niger, where the practice of slavery was outlawed in 2003, a study found that almost 8% of the population are still slaves. [ [http://abcnews.go.com/International/Story?id=813618&page=1 ABC News: The Shackles of Slavery in Niger ] ]
The Tuareg people inhabit a large area covering almost all the middle and western
Saharaand the north-central Sahel. In Tuareg terms, the Sahara is not one desert but many, so they call it "Tinariwen" ("the Deserts"). Among the many deserts in Africa there is the true desert Tenere. Then we can cite numerous deserts more and less arid, flat and mountainous: Adrar, Tagant, Tawat ( Touat) Tanezruft, Adghagh n Fughas, Tamasna, Azawagh, Adar, Damargu, Tagama, Manga, Ayr, Tarramit(Termit), Kawar, Djado, Tadmait, Admer, Igharghar, Ahaggar, Tassili N'Ajjer, Tadrart, Idhan, Tanghart, Fezzan, Tibesti, Kalansho, Libyan Desert, etc.
Tuareg confederations, political centers, and leaders
At the turn of the 19th century the Tuareg country was organized into confederations, each ruled by a supreme Chief ("Amenokal"), along with a counsel of senior tribes people elected to assist the chief.
*Kel Ajjer or Azjar, center
*Kel Ayer,Lisawan, in keita,
Tahoua, Ader, Aghat(Ghat).
*Kel Ahaggar, in
*Kel Adagh, or Kel Assuk,
Kidal, and Tin Buktu
Kel Ataram, Manaka, and Azawaghregion
Kel Denneg, In Tibaraden, Abalagh, Teliya Azawagh.
Kel Gres, Zinderand Tanut ( Tanout).
Assodé, Agadez, In Gal, Timiaand Ifrwan.
The most famous Tuareg leader was a woman,
Tin Hinan, heroine and spiritual leader, who founded a legendary kingdom in the Ahaggar mountains. Other confederation leaders followed under the title of "Amenokal" (Chief), of whom the most famous include:
*Amattaza, of the Lisawan
*Afadandan, of the Lisawan
*Karidanna, of the Iwillimmidan
*Waisimudan, of Iwillimidan
*Aljilani Ag Ibrahim, of Iwillimidan
*Busari Ag Akhmad, of Iwillimidan
*Musa Ag Amastan, of Kel Ahaggar
*Ibrahim Ag Abakkada, of Kel Azjar
*Amud, of Kel Azjar
*Makhammad Ag Katami, of Iwillimmidan
*Balkhu, of Kel Ayr
*Wan Agoda, of Kel Faday (Kel Ayr)
*Ahitaghal, of Kel Ahaggar
*Akhanokhan, of Kel Azjar
*Khadakhada, of Iwillimidan
*Alkhurer, of Iwillimidan
*Makhammad Wan Ag Alkhurer Iwillimidan
*Abdurrakhman Tagama, of Kel Ayr
*Hammed Almomin Iwillimidan
*Fihrun Ag Amansar, of Iwillimidan
*Atisi Ag Amellal of Kel Ahaggar
*Akhamok Ag Ihemma of Kel Ahaggar
*Bay Ag Akhamok of Kel Ahaggar
*Khamzata Ag Makhammad, of Iwillimidan
*Edaber Ag Makhammad the new Amenokal of Kel Ahaggar
The Tuareg are
matrilineal, though not matriarchal. Unlike many Muslim societies, women do not traditionally wear the veil, whereas men do. The most famous Tuareg symbol is the Tagelmust(also called éghéwed in Malian Tamasheq, or referred to as a Cheche, pronounced: Shesh from Berber), an often blue indigo coloured veil called Alasho. The men's facial covering originates from the belief that such action wards off evil spirits, but most probably relates to protection against the harsh desert sands as well; in any event, it is a firmly established tradition (as is the wearing of amulets containing verses from the Qur'an). Men begin wearing a veil when they reach maturity which usually conceals their entire face excluding their eyes and the top of the nose.
Tuareg people have a very personal wedding, there's an unspoken law about other people not interfering with marriage. The only tradition they know is a '
quarantine' period after one's husband's/wife's death. The widow is supposed to make something whereby her husband should be remembered during this period, and she's not to see other men. Men usually have to cleanse themselves physically and mentally. Nor was there a common punishment for women or men who were unfaithfulAlthough Tuareg aren't supposed to have more than one lifepartner (a relationship is practically equal to an engagement and once you're a couple you're expected to get married) it is highly unusual for them to stay single. When a partner passes away, they are expected to get married again (when the quarantine is finished). If there are no potential partners or the widow or widower is too old to get married there are exceptions.
Many Tuareg today are either settled agriculturalists or nomadic cattle breeders; though there are also
blacksmiths and caravan leaders.
The Tuareg are sometimes called the "Blue People" because the
indigopigment in the cloth of their traditional robes and turbans stained the wearer's skin dark blue. Today, the traditional "indigo" turban is still preferred for celebrations, and generally Tuaregs wear clothing and turbans in a variety of colors.
The Tuareg speak Tamajaq/Tamasheq/Tamahaq, a southern
Berber languagehaving several dialects among the different regions. The Berber dialects spoken in the Rif (Tamazight), Atlas and Souss regions of Morocco differ somewhat from each other and also from the Tuareg dialects spoken further south. Berber is an Afro-Asiatic language like Semitic languages, Chadic languagesand Pharaonic Egyptian. The language is called Tamasheqby western Tuareg in Mali, Tamahaqamong Algerian and Libyan Tuareg, and Tamajaqin the Azawagh and Aïr regions, Niger. The Tamajaqwriting system, Tifinagh(also called Shifinagh), descends directly from the original Berber script used by the Numidians in pre-Roman times.
The Tuareg are predominantly Muslim and generally follow the
Much Tuareg art is in the form of jewelry, leather and metal saddle decorations called Trik, and finally crafted swords. The Inadan community makes traditional handicrafts. Among their products are:
Tanaghiltor Zakkat(the 'Agadez Cross' or 'Croix d'Agadez'); the Tuareg Takoba, many beautiful gold and silver-made necklaces called 'Takaza'; and earrings called 'Tizabaten'.
In 2007, Stanford's Cantor Arts Center opened an exhibition, "Art of Being Tuareg: Sahara Nomads in a Modern World," curated by Tom Seligman, Director of the center, who first spent time with the Tuareg in 1971 when he traveled through the Sahara after serving in the Peace Corps. The exhibition includes beautifully crafted and adorned functional objects such as camel saddles, tents, bags, swords, amulets, cushions, dresses, earrings, spoons and drums. [ [http://museum.stanford.edu/news_room/Tuareg.html Cantor Arts Center - First Exhibition of Tuareg Art and Culture in America Appears at Stanford Before Traveling to the Smithsonian's National Museum of African Art ] ] The exhibition is also being shown at UCLA Fowler Museum in Los Angeles and the Smithsonian’s National Museum of African Art in Washington DC.
Across History the Tuareg are renowned and respected warriors. Their decline a military Might came with the introduction of the fire arms, weapons which the Tuareg do not possess. The Tuareg warrior attire consists of a
Takoba(sword), Allagh(lance) and Aghar(shield) made of antelope's skin.
Traditional Tuareg music has two major components: the moncord violin
Anzadplayed often during night parties and a small tambour covered with goatskin called Tende, performed during camel races and horse races. and other festivities. Traditional vocal songs called Asak(songs), and Tisiway(poems) sung by women and men during feats and social occasions. Another popular Tuareg musical genre is Takamba, characteristic for its Afro-Berber percussions. Tinariwen, a Tuareg band that fuses electric guitars and indigenous musical styles, was founded in the 1980s by rebel fighters. Tinariwen is one of the best known and authentic Tuareg bands. Especially in areas that were cut off during the Tuareg rebellion (eg Adrar des Iforas), they were practically the only music available, which made them locally famous and their songs/lyrics (eg Abaraybone, ...) are well known by the locals. [Tinariwen:Aman Iman CD booklet] They released their first CD in 2000, and toured in Europe and the United States in 2004. The Niger-based band Etran Finatawacombines Tuareg and Wodaabemembers, playing a combination of traditional instruments and electric guitars.
Many music groups emerged after the 1980s cultural revival.Among them Tartit, Imaran and known artists are: Abdallah Oumbadougou from Ayr, Baly Othmany of Djanet.
Tuareg Music genres, Music groups and artists
*Majila Ag Khamed Ahmad, singer Asak (vocal music), of Aduk, Niger
*Almuntaha female Anzad (Tuareg violin) player, of Aduk, Niger
*Ajju female Anzad (Tuareg violin) player, of Agadez, Niger
*Islaman singer, genre Asak (vocal music), of Abalagh, Niger
*Tambatan singer, genre Asak (vocal music), Tchin-Tabaraden, Niger
*Alghadawiat female Anzad (Tuareg violin) player, of Akoubounou, Niger
*Taghdu female Anzad (Tuareg violin) player, of Aduk, Niger
*In Tayaden singer and guitar player, Mali
*Kiddu Ag Hossad singer and guitar player, Mali
*Baly Othmani singer, luth player, Djanet Algeria
*Abdalla Ag Umbadugu, singer and guitar player, Agadez, Niger
Music and Culture Festivals
The Desert Festival in Mali's Timbuktu provides one opportunity to see Tuareg culture and dance and hear their music.
Other festivals include:
Cure SaleeFestival in the oasis of In-Gall, Niger
*Sabeiba Festival in Ganat (
*Shiriken Festival in Akabinu (
TakubeltTuareg Festival in Mali
GhatFestival in Aghat (Ghat) Libya
Festival au Desertin Mali
GhadamesBerber and Tuareg Festival in Libya
Tuareg Traditional Games include:
*Tiddas a game played with small stones and sticks.
*Izagag a game played with small stones or dried fruits.
*Iswa a game played by picking up stones while throwing another stone.
*Melgha a game where children hide themselves and another tries to find and touch them before they reach the well and drink.
*Tabillant traditional Tuareg wrestling
*Alamom wrestling while running
*Solagh another type of wrestling
*Tammazaga or Tammalagha race on camel back
*Takket consists of staying awake singing and playing all night.
*Takadant a game that makes children try to imagine what the others are thinking.
*Shishagheren consists of writing the name of one's lover to see if this person brings good luck.
*Taqqanen telling devinettes and enigmas.
*Maru Maru young people mime how the tribe works.
The Tuareg are a
pastoralpeople, having an economy based on livestock breeding, trading, and agriculture. A contemporary variant is occurring in northern Niger, in a traditionally Tuareg territory that comprises most of the uranium-rich land of the country. The central government in Niamey has shown itself unwilling to cede control of the highly profitable mining to indigenous clans; the Tuareg are determined not to relinquish the prospect of substantial economic benefit; the French government has independently entered the fray to defend a French firm, Areva, established in Niger for fifty years and now mining the massive Imouraren deposit. Tuareg are distinguished in their native language as the Imouhar, meaning the free people; the overlap of meaning has increased local cultural nationalism. Additional complaints against Areva are that it is: "...plundering...the natural resources and [draining] the fossil deposits. It is undoubtedly an ecological catastrophe."
These mines yield uranium ores, which are then processed to produce "
yellowcake", crucial to the nuclear power industry (as well as aspirational nuclear powers). Controversy in the United States erupted out of a report asserting that Saddam Hussein had not tried to buy yellowcake from Niger, partly on grounds that Nigerien uranium mines had closed. In fact, many are disused and lightly sealed, allowing individuals to enter and mine at will.Fact|date=December 2007
In 2007, some Tuareg people in Niger have allied themselves with the MNJ, the
Niger Movement for Justice, a rebel group operating in the north of the country. During 2004-2007, U.S. Special Forces teams trained Tuareg units of the Nigerien Armyin the Sahel region as part of the Trans-Sahara Counter-Terrorism Partnership; some of these trainees are reputed to have gone on to fight in the 2007 rebellion within the MNJ. The goal of these Tuareg appears to be economic and political control of ancestral lands rather than being a confluence of religious and political ideologies.
The Tuareg are classified as a Berber group, and are closely related to both
Northwest African Berbers and West Africans, in terms of culture and ethnicity. At least some sources argue that the Tuareg are defined by language and culture, not by ethnicity, and that predominantly Tamasheq speakers qualify as "Tuareg" (and, presumably, by implication, individuals of Tuareg descent but who have assimilated into various countries and do not speak Tamasheq languages). [http://wwwusers.imaginet.fr/~yusuf/introduction.html] This is probably part of the reason for the widely varying estimates of the number of Tuareg in the world.
ethnic flagis red, white, and blue. [ [http://www.fotw.us/flags/ber%7Daza.html Tuareg ethnic flag:] ]
In popular culture
A fictionalised group of Tuareg are one of the primary factions in a civil war underway in Mali featured in the 2005 film Sahara. They're pitted against an enemy who has greater military power and weaponry but they ultimately defeat their adversary in a climactic scene near the film's end.
Bruce Sterlingused a fictionalised Tuaregtribe in his novel Islands in the Net. The Tuareg were portrayed as post-pastoralist nomads who had renounced herding animals in favour of using solar power and eating single-celled protein, and as fine musicians.
Volkswagenintroduced a new SUVnamed the Touareg.
In the Nickelodeon animated series, , the nomadic characters known as "sand benders" are based on the Tuareg people.
* Ghoubeid Alojaly, Karl Prasse, Ghabdouane Mohamed, "Dictionnaire touareg-français", Copenhague, Museum Tusculanum, 2003 (2 vols., 1031 p.) - ISBN 8772898445
*Francis James Rennell Rodd, "People of the veil. Being an account of the habits, organisation and history of the wandering Tuareg tribes which inhabit the mountains of Air or Asben in the Central Sahara", London, MacMillian & Co., 1926 (repr. Oosterhout, N.B., Anthropological Publications, 1966)
* Heath Jeffrey 2005: "A Grammar of Tamashek (Tuareg of Mali)". New York: Mouton de Gruyer. Mouton Grammar Library, 35. ISBN 3-11-018484-2
* Rando et al. (1998) Mitochondrial DNA analysis of northwest African populations reveals genetic exchanges with European, near-eastern, and sub-Saharan populations. "Annals of Human Genetics" 62(6): 531-50; Watson et al. (1996) mtDNA sequence diversity in Africa. "American Journal of Human Genetics" 59(2): 437-44; Salas et al. (2002) The Making of the African mtDNA Landscape. "American Journal of Human Genetics" 71: 1082-1111. These are good sources for information on the genetic heritage of the Tuareg and their relatedness to other populations.
* Edmond Bernus, "Les Touareg," pp. 162-171 in Vallées du Niger, Paris: Éditions de la Réunion des Musées Nationaux, 1993.
* Andre Bourgeot, Les Sociétés Touarègues, Nomadisme, Identité, Résistances, Paris: Karthala, 1995.
* Hélène Claudot-Hawad, ed., Touregs: Exil et Résistance. Révue du Monde Musulman et de la Méiterranée No. 57, Aix en Provence: Edisud, 1991.
* Claudot-Hawad, Touaregs, Portrait en Fragments, Aix en Provence: Edisud, 1993.
* Hélène and Hawad Claudot-Hawad, Touaregs: Voix Solitaires sous l'Horizon Confisque, Ethnies-Documents No. 20-21, Hiver, 1996.
Mano Dayak, Touareg: La Tragedie, Paris: Éditions Lattes, 1992.
* Sylvie Ramir, Les Pistes de l'Oubli: Touaregs au Niger, Paris: éditions du Felin, 1991.
University of Iowa's [http://www.uiowa.edu/~africart/toc/people/Tuareg.html Art and Life in Africa Online: Tuareg]
* [http://tuaregs.free.fr/tuareg_e/pages/origin/origin-e_nsf.htm Origin and History of the Tuaregs]
* [http://membres.lycos.fr/temoust/press_release7500.htm The Massacres at Tchin Tarabaden: 10 years later!] . This press release (
7 May 2000), while polemical, is useful for a pro-Tuareg view of the conflicts in Mali and Niger.
* [http://tuaregcultureandnews.blogspot.com/ Tuareg Culture and News] An educational website for study and research on the Tuareg people
* Ethnologue 14 pages for [http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_country.asp?name=Niger Niger] , [http://www.ethnologue.com/14/show_country.asp?name=Mali Mali] , etc., used for population estimates.
* [http://wwwusers.imaginet.fr/~yusuf/introduction.html Tuareg is not an Ethnos] , accessed
2 February 2004, available on Internet Archiveat [http://web.archive.org/web/20040202214621/http://wwwusers.imaginet.fr/~yusuf/introduction.html] . Cited for the low-end estimate of population.
* [http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cronologia_tuareg A comprehensive tuareg chronology] along with lists of "amenokals" from [http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lista_degli_amenukal_dell%27Ahaggar Kel Ahaggar] , [http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lista_degli_amenukal_dei_Kel_Adagh Kel Adagh] and [http://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lista_degli_amenukal_dell%27Azawagh Kel Azawagh] (in Italian).
* [http://www.agraw.com/modules/Music/Twareg-Music.php Tuareg Music] and [http://www.agraw.com/modules/xcgal/thumbnails.php?album=3 Tuareg Photos] from www.agraw.com.
* [http://www.tassouft.com/ le site internet de tassouft et de ses amis (hoggar, algérie)] fr icon
* [http://www.agadez-niger.com Maps of Niger, pictures of Agadez, Tuaregs, and handcraft from Niger; also a forum] fr icon
* [http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/africa/tuaregs.php Tuareg Culture and Art]
* [http://www.bradshawfoundation.com/news/index.php?subaction=showfull&id=1176481026&archive=&start_from=&ucat=2& Dr Jean Clottes honoured by the Blue Tuareg people]
* [http://museum.stanford.edu/news_room/Tuareg.html "Art of Being Tuareg: Sahara Nomads in a Modern World" at Stanford's Cantor Arts Center]
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