- Variance (accounting)
budgeting (or management accountingin general), a variance is the difference between a budgeted, planned or standard amount and the actual amount incurred/sold. Variances can be computed for both costs and revenues.
The concept of variance is intrinsically connected with planned and actual results and effects of the difference between those two on the performance of the entity or company.
Types of variances
Variances can be divided according to their effect or nature of the underlying amounts.
When effect of variance is concerned, there are two types of variances:
*When actual results are better than expected results given variance is described as favourable variance. In common use favourable variance is denoted by the letter F - usually in parentheses (F).
*When actual results are worse than expected results given variance is described as adverse variance, or unfavourable variance. In common use adverse variance is denoted by the letter A or the letter U - usually in parentheses (A).
The second typology (according to the nature of the underlying amount) is determined by the needs of users of the variance information and may include e.g.:
*Variable cost variances
Direct material variances
Direct labour variances
**Variable production overhead variances
*Fixed production overhead variances
Variance analysis, in budgeting (or
management accountingin general), is a tool of budgetary control by evaluation of performance by means of variances between budgeted amount, planned amount or standard amount and the actual amount incurred/sold. Variance analysis can be carried for both costs and revenues.
Budgetingin Non-profit organization
direct material total variance
direct material price variance
direct material usage variance
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