- Library of Friedrich Nietzsche
The German philosopher
Friedrich Nietzscheowned an extensive private library, which has been preserved after his death. Today this library consists of some 1,100 volumes, of which about 170 contain annotations by him, many of them substantial. However, less than half of the books he read are also found in his library. [Brobjer, Thomas. "Nietzsche's Reading and Private Library, 1885-1889." Published in "Journal of History of Ideas." Accessed via JSTOR on 18 May 2007.]
Nietzsche, who had been a student and a professor of
philology, had a thorough knowledge of the Greek philosophers. Among modern philosophers, his reading included Kant, Mill and Schopenhauer, [Brobjer, Thomas. "Nietzsche's Reading and Private Library, 1885-1889." Published in "Journal of History of Ideas." Accessed via JSTOR on 18 May 2007.] who became major targets of criticism in his philosophy. He also mentions reading Hegelat the age of twenty. [In a letter to Hermann Mushacke, 20 September 1865: "Zum Kaffee esse ich etwas Hegelsche Philosophie", quoted in Curt Paul Janz, "Friedrich Nietzsche: Biographie", Munich: Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag, 1981, I, p. 166.] Late in life he read Spinoza, whom he called his "precursor", in particular for his criticisms of free will, teleologyand his thoughts on the role of affects, joy and sadness. [Letter to Franz Overbeck, 30 July1881] Nietzsche, however, opposed Spinoza's theory of " conatus", for which he substituted the "will to power" ("Wille zur Macht"); and he replaced Spinoza's formula "Deus sive Naturae" (God or Nature) by "Chaos sive Naturae". Nietzsche also admired the French moralists of the 17th century such as La Rochefoucauld, La Bruyère and Vauvenargues, whose books he received from his sister in 1869. [Brendan Donnellan, [http://links.jstor.org/sici?sici=0016-8831%28197905%2952%3A3%3C303%3ANALR%3E2.0.CO%3B2-6&size=LARGE "Nietzsche and La Rochefoucauld"] in " The German Quarterly", Vol. 52, No. 3 (May, 1979), pp. 303-318 en icon] He also admired Pascaland, most of all, Stendhal. See for example "Ecce Homo", "Why I am So Clever", §3 ]
Nietzsche read in 1883
Paul Bourget's "Essais de psychologie contemporaine", from which he borrowed the French term " décadence". [Johan Grzelczyk, [http://www.hypernietzsche.org/navigate.php?sigle=jgrzelczyk-4 "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence"] , "HyperNietzsche", 2005-11-01 fr icon. Grzelczyk quotes Jacques Le Rider, "Nietzsche en France. De la fin du XIXe siècle au temps présent", Paris, PUF, 1999, pp.8-9 ] Bourget had an organicist conception of society. Nietzsche had already encountered organicist theories in Rudolf Virchow's "Die Cellularpathologie" (1858) and in Alfred Espinas's "Des sociétés animales" (1887; "Die thierischen Gesellschaften", Braunschweig, 1879). [Johan Grzelczyk, [http://www.hypernietzsche.org/navigate.php?sigle=jgrzelczyk-4 "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence"] , "HyperNietzsche", 2005-11-01 fr icon. Grzelczyk quotes B. Wahrig-Schmidt, "Irgendwie, jedenfalls physiologisch. Friedrich Nietzsche, Alexandre Herzen (fils) und Charles Féré 1888" in "Nietzsche Studien", Band 17, Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, 1988, p.439]
Nietzsche also became familiar with
Darwinismthrough his early reading of Friedrich Albert Lange's " Geschichte des Materialismus" (1865), which criticized Darwin's gradualism. [http://fr.wikisource.org/wiki/Note_sur_Nietzsche_et_Lange_:_%C2%AB_le_retour_%C3%A9ternel_%C2%BB Note sur Nietzsche et Lange : « le retour éternel »] , Albert Fouillée, "Revue philosophique de la France et de l'étranger". An. 34. Paris 1909. T. 67, S. 519-525 (on French Wikisource) ] Lange alluded to Stirnerin this book, whom he (incorrectly) identified with Schopenhauerian positions. Chapter I of "Stirner and Nietzsche" by Albert Lévy (Paris, Alcan, 1904)] He also mentioned Blanqui's " [http://classiques.uqac.ca/classiques/blanqui_louis_auguste/eternite_par_les_astres/eternite_.html L'Eternité par les astres] ", which discussed the thesis of an eternal return. Besides Lange, he read the anti-Darwinist botanist Karl Wilhelm von Nägeli's "Mechanisch-physiologische Theorie der Abstammungslehre" (1884) in the period of "Beyond Good and Evil", which became his main source concerning physiology. Nietzsche targeted Social Darwinism, in particular Herbert Spencer, John Stuart Milland David Strauss(he read all of them, and titled the first "Untimely Meditation" "David Strauss: the Confessor and the Writer").Anette Horn, [http://users.iafrica.com/h/ho/hornpete/Nietzsche-Conference.htm "Nietzsche's interpretation of his sources on Darwinism: Idioplasma, Micells and military troops"] en icon] Finally, Wolfgang Müller-Lauter showed that Nietzsche also read the embryologist Wilhelm Roux. [ Wolfgang Müller-Lauter, "Der Organismus als Innerer Kampf. Der Einfluß von Wilhelm Roux auf Friedrich Nietzsche" in "Nietzsche Studien", Bd. 7, 1978, p.189-223 de icon]
In a letter of
26 February1888 to Peter Gast, Nietzsche mentions his reading of the posthumous works of Charles Baudelaire(published in 1887). He also read Tolstoy's "My Religion" (Paris, 1885), the Jewish historian Julius Wellhausenon Arab antiquities and his "Prolegomena zur Geschichte Israels" (Berlin, 1882), the first volume of the "Journal" of the Goncourt brothers, thoughts of Benjamin Constanton German theater, Ernest Renan's "Life of Jesus" — whom he opposed —, and Dostoevsky's "The Possessed" (Paris, 1886 — read in 1887). [Walter Kaufmann, "Nietzsche: Philosopher, Psychologist, Antichrist", pp. 306-340.] Julius Wellhausenbecame famous for his critical investigations into Old Testamenthistory and into the composition of the " Hexateuch", the uncompromising scientific attitude he adopted in testing its problems bringing him into antagonism with the older school of biblical interpreters. He became arguably best-known for the Documentary hypothesison the origin of the Pentateuch. Wellhausen influenced Nietzsche in his writing of "The Antichrist" and in his musings on the internal discrepancies of the Bible.
Nietzsche's 1888 notebooks also contain references to
Victor Brochard's "Les Sceptiques grecs" (1887) See for example "Ecce Homo", "Why I am So Clever", §3 ] ; to Charles Féré, who had concerns about " degeneration" issues; and to Louis Jacolliot's "Les Lois de Manou", which became for Nietzsche the "classical [case] of "pia fraus", the "pious lie" of religion" Mazzino Montinari, "La Volonté de puissance" n'existe pas", Editions de l'Eclat, 1996 (§13) ] In his notebooks, Nietzsche copied several passages of Féré, later included, without quotation marks, in "The Will to Power" published by Elisabeth Förster-Nietzscheand Peter Gast. [Johan Grzelczyk, [http://www.hypernietzsche.org/navigate.php?sigle=jgrzelczyk-4 "Féré et Nietzsche : au sujet de la décadence"] , HyperNietzsche,2005-11-01 fr icon]
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