official_name = Marijampil'
native_name = Маріямпіль
imagesize = 250px
image_caption =View of the Dnister from Marijampil
subdivision_type = Country
established_title = Founded
established_date = 1378
established_title1 = City rights
established_date1 = c. 1720s
area_total_km2 = 27.44
population_as_of = 2004
population_total = <1,000|population_footnotes=
population_metro =| population_density_km2 = 40
pushpin_map_caption =Location of Marijampil'
latd=49 |latm=2 |lats=0 |latNS=N
longd=24 |longm=51 |longs=0 |longEW=E
postal_code = 77181
area_code = -3431
Ukrainian: Маріямпіль), or formerly Marynopil ( Ukrainian: Маринопіль) is a town (formerly a township) in the Halytskyi Raionof the Ivano-Frankivskoblast on the left bank of the Dnister.
Etymology of the town's name
Unlike other cities, the toponym "Marijampil" has a well-defined etymology. The name derives from the Christian name
Mary.Based on the folk legend (from the book "Культурні грона Дністра"), during the time of the Tatarraids, the Polish leader ( wojewoda), Kaietan was fleeing the Tatars on his horse. Having crossed the Dnister, this horse could not jump onto the bank. Despairing of being caught by the Tatars, Kaietan yelled "Jesus-Maryja" and the horse carried him to dry land. In thanks giving to God, Kaietan founded on the either bank of the river, the cities of Jesupil’, in honour of Jesusand Marijampil’, in honour of Mary, the Mother of God.Most researchers believe that this settlement was named by the hetman of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski. The Polish researcher W. Urban found in the ancient documents of the parish of Marijampil that in 1691, the town of Božyj Vydok was renamed as Marijampil by Stanislaw Jablonowski. This name was chosen since this hetman brought to the town the miraculous icon of "Our Lady of the Knight" ("Рицарської Богоматерi") that had followed him in all his military campaigns, especially his campaign in defence of Vienna in 1683.Around 1694, the neighbouring town in honour of Jesus was named "Jesupil".In 1946, after the Western oblasts of Ukraine became a part of the USSR, Marijampil was renamed Marynopil. In 2003, after a townwide referendum, the town decided to return to its historic name of Marijampil. In February 2004, this was confirmed by the Supreme Rada of Ukraine.
Marijampil is at the same time an ancient and new town. It is an ancient town since this area has been inhabited since the Palaeolithic era and during the growth of the Kingdom of Galicia. It is a new town since its current history only dates from 1691, when on the ruins of the pagan town of Chortopol’ (Ukrainian for Devil's Town), the town, with a Christian name of Marijampil, was built.
The painterly landscape of this area is breathtaking. When one stands on top of the Castle Hill (Zamkova hora), it is possible to see the beautiful Dnister valley. The view from the hill breathes about its history about the kings and their followers (boyari), about the Tatar and their raids, about the religious growth and years of neglect.
Archaeological evidence suggests that the first town was built during the Galician-Volhynian kingdom of the 12th to 13th century. It was founded on the high bend on the Dnister and the town was well fortified. It has been suggested that this town was called Chortopil. Based on the folk saying recorded by I. Drabčuk, the castle was built by either king Danylo of Halyč or one of his sons in the 13th as a defensive outpost. According to further legends, since the 13th, in the courtyard of the castle, a deep, 63-m well was built by Tatar captives. This well was forgotten and covered in the 20th. Unfortunately, historical information about these times is scarce. Obviously, the mysterious Chortopil managed to exist into the 15th century, whereupon it was ruined during one of the Tatar raids.
About 500-900 m from this place along the Dnister, near a Tatar encampment, in the 15th century, the town of
Delijiv– Vovčkiv was built. The first historical mention of this settlement can be found in 1404, when the lord of Vovčkiv, a "dibr Vovče" Dobeslav iz Delijiv had to send 7 of his subordinates to a court in Halyč. For the existence of this town from at least 1378, the judicial document, "Acts of the lands and towns," from the middle of the 15th century. In them, a Jan with the surname of Bylinka, who was adjudicated to have the privilege of "Vovče," given to him by the king Vladyslav Opol's’kyj (1372-1380) and a document affirming this signed by the Polish king Casimir IV Jagiellon.
In the 16th century, Vovčiv grow tremendously. In 1594, it and the a neighbour of the town of Češybisy (the future Jesupil) was burned by the Tatars. Beginning in the 1630s, this settlement belonged to the princely (szlachta) family of Teodor-Andrej Belzecky. In 1638, he helped Vovčiv obtain the Magdeburg City Rights. In the 1670, the Polish king
John III Sobieskigranted the town the Magdeburg Rights. The nucleus of this town was the beautiful, wooden castle called Božyj Vydok (Heavenly View), that was built by Belezecky on one of the foothills.
The second half of the 17th century was extremely difficult for Galicia: military campaigns, Tatar raids, epidemics, fires, and civil strife. In 1655, the inhabitants of Vovčkiv and neighbouring towns, raided the castle of Jesupil, destroying its gate and taking the treasure of the former szlachta. In two years time, the raids of the renegade Cossack leader Anton Sičlos ruined the towns of Jesupil and Vovčkiv-Božyj Vydok. The worst came in 1676 when the Ottoman armies with their allies the Crimean Tatar besieged the castle and burnt the town and castle to the ground.
In 1691, the Polish king gave the ruined town of Vovčkiv-Božyj Vydok to the Krackowian, castellan, hetman Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski (1634-1702) with the privilege of building a fort on this location. It is not known who suggested that the castle be built on a hill on the bend in the river, that made this place an idea impregnable fort. The fort had 4 tall towers. There were 2 entrances to the castle through strong doors and a draw bridge. The walls of the fort were 2-3 m thick and 4-5 m tall. The southern and southeasterly sections of the fort were protected by a large, deep moat. At the foot of the hill, a square market place was built. The first inhabitants were the villagers from the former town of Božyj Vydok. Later settlers from Mazuria settled in Vovčkiv, which was now called Marijampil.
Due to the work of the Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski, the town not only obtained its name, but also the miraculous icon of Our Lady of Marijampil, the main religious object of this settlement.
The Polish ducal dynasty of
Jabłonowskiruled Marijampil for almost 190 years and they saw its large growth. On the death in 1702 of Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski, his son, Jan Stanisław Jabłonowski, wojewod of Rus’, a scholar and a writer, inherited the town. Under his supervision, the wooden (Roman Catholic) church of Holy Trinity, which now housed the Icon of the Mother of God, was build.
Around 1703, Marijampil had its own crest, which was used as the town seal. At first, the crest consisted of the
Lamentationof Mary over the crucified body of Christ; later, the crest was an icon of the Our Lady with Christ. The field of the crest was blue with the figures in gold. Later, the family crest of the Jablonowski was added as a separate crest.In 1736-1741, the grandson of Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski, Jan Kaietan Jablonowski(1699-1764) set aside money for the construction of a stone church of the Holy Trinity. In 1742, he built in Marijampil, a CapuchinMonastery along with the (Roman Catholic) church of St. Anthony, at first out of wood and later out of stone. The stone buildings were completed by 1757. In 1753, next to the monastery, one of the many centres of higher learning in Galicia was built. At first, it solely consisted of a collegeum of classical studies, but later the study of rhetoric was added. In 1746, under the patronage of Therese of Wilgorsly, the wife of Jan Kaietan Jablonowski, a hospital for the poor and a school for princely (szlachta) orphans was built. The Sisters of Mercy of the Order of Charitywere in charge of this establishment.
In 1772, the Galician lands became a part of the Austrian empire. In time, Marijampil become the administrative centre for the local
circul. For the next 150 years, a military garrison is found in the local castle. The town continues to expand—both physically and in the number of inhabitants. In 1775, there were 1,332 inhabitants and 218 buildings in Marijampil. In accordance with the decree of the Austrian king about closing small monastic establishments, the Capuchin monastery was abandoned. Later, the Austrian government gave the monastery to the Sisters of Mercy, and around the church of St. Anthony a Greek-Catholic community developed.
The first mention of churches in Marijampil can be traced to the 1742 founding document of Kaietan Jablonowski to the Capuchins, which mentions that the monastery was to be built next to a "Rusyn" (Orthodox) church. At the end of the 18th century, there were two churches in Marijampil: the Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross in the centre of the town and the Church of St. Nicholas. In 1790, the first church was in a state of severe neglect, while the second had burned down. Thus, due to the lack of a religious place for the inhabitants, they petitioned the Austrian king to permit them to build a new church. The authorities gave the inhabitants the church of St. Anthony. The 130-year common use of this church by both the Roman Catholics and Greek-Catholics was the source of many disagreements and court cases in both the Galician and Lvivsky courts. To these religious problems, even the emperor and parliament were dragged into. The authorities attempted to be even-handed when dealing with the two sides.
Marijampil played an important role in the
Napoleonic Wars. In 1809, a 4,000-strong, pronapoleonic, gathering of Polish partisans under the command of P. Strižewsky gathered in the local fortress. Against them a 8,000-strong Austrian army, consisting of corps under the generals Merfeld, Kesler, and Ederman , could not dislodge the army form the fortress. The Austrian artillery was called in and, in addition to the damage to the surrounding buildings, damaged the fortress. At the same time, word came to the generals that Napoleon Bonaparteand Francis IIhad agreed to a peace treaty. Thus, the Polish army left the fortress. In order to avoid a similar repeat, the Austrian government in 1817 decreed that the walls of the fortress be torn down. In the 1820s, the Jablonowski family taking advantage of the large amount of building material that could be obtained from the ruins of the fortress, built in Marijampil a typical, contemporary palace, which has survived to today in ruins.
Spring of Nationsin 1849 touched the life of Marijampil. A large influence on the socio-political life had the family Zaklyns’kij. One of the most notable members was Hnata Onufrijovyča Zaklyns’ka(1818-1866), a member of the Greek-Catholic parish of Marijampil at the end of the 1840s. Together with her husband, Joseph Katherine, they organised in the town a reading room, a choir, and a drama group. Another prominent member was Father Basil Motjuk(1853-1934), a Greek-Catholic pastor for 50 years from 1884. He organised a church choir, well-known beyond the confines of the town, the starter of many social organisations, especially the reading club "Prosvity" (Enlightenment) in 1899. Based on the plan given by the engineer Volodymir Sičyns’kyj, the members of the club met in a single-storey building that became a meeting place for the drama group, the choir, a store, and a credit union.
In the early 19th century, the town grew economically. The town had always been a centre for artisan materials, primarily out of wood and stone. The largest artisan shop was the single making shop become well-known for its singles in the Austrian Empire and around the world. During the 1844 International Exhibition in Vienna, its products were displayed. For the further development of trade in Marijampil, Jablonowski invited Jewish merchants and built a Market Square. In 1857, this town was settled by the followers of the Chasidic sect led by rabbi
Elisar Gorovuč ben Meshulam Isaac Ga Levi. The Jewish community in Marijampil then experienced a huge increase in numbers.In 1898, Marijampil has 4,135 inhabitants, of which 2,020 were Roman Catholics, 1,265 Greek-Catholics, and 850 Jewish. Most of the Roman Catholic inhabitants of Marijampil were either the descendants of the Galician szlachta or the descendants of the Mazurian colonists from the former town of Vovčkiv. Until the First World War, the three communities lived in relative peace in Marijampil. However, the worldwide cataclysms of the 20th century heavily touched on Marijampil.During the First World War, due to its location was involved in many fights. On September 2nd, 1914, the town was captured by the Russian Imperial Army. Fierce fighting occurred in Marijampil from February 27th to March 4th 1914. Many inhabitants were evacuated. However, many more were killed in the fighting. A major fire destroyed many of the buildings including the palace. The Russian Army was unable to defend against the fierce Austrian counterattack and the town was retaken by the Austrian on July 2nd, 1915. The Russian Army returned for a second time in June 1916. In July 1920, the front between the Bolsheviks and the forces loyal to Symon Petliurawere around Marijampil. During this time, the command of the army, hetman Simeon Petlura visited Marijampil. From March 3rd to 15th, 1920 the town and the left bank of the Dnister was controlled by force loyal to Budjonnyj.
At the same time, the Ukrainian and Polish communities of Marijampil were growing and being radicalised. Many youths from Marijampil joined the Ukrainian Sič Army and the Ukrianian Galician Army. During the short-term government of the
Western Ukrainian Republic, the Ukrainian youth took control of the local militia and government from the Poles.After the battles of Polish-Ukrainian Warand the unification of Galicia with the independent Poland under the Treaty of Versailles, the Ukrainian found themselves under a brutal Polish regime. On June 9th 1919, during the Liturgy in the monastery church that had been shared for the last 130 years between the Roman Catholics and Greek-Catholics, 40 Polish soldiers entered the church started to destroy books, steal the valuables, and assault the parishioners. On September 26th, 1924, the leaders of the Stanislaw wojewodstwo forced the Greek-Catholics to abandon the church by January 1st, 1926. Given the hardships of post-First World War Poland, it was impossible to build a new church. Thus, the Sister Servants and the Roman Catholic parish pastor, Father Maricin Bosak emptied the church of the Greek-Catholics icons and objects. From January 5th, 1926, a day before Christmas, the church was closed to Ukrainians. Soon, the wooden bell tower was destroyed.One of the most important figures in the interwar period in Marijampil was the Roman Catholic pastor Marcin Bosak (1889-1941), who arrived in this town in 1920, and immediately took an interest in the cultural growth of the Polish community. He not only improved their spiritual life, but also their economic status. Under his initiative, a shingle factory, a cultural centre, a three-storey school, new sewers, sidewalks, and a new Roman Catholic Church were built. Furthermore, he organised Polish organisations.With the help of the Stanislaw (Greek-Catholic) bishop, Reverend Greogory Xomyšyn, in 1930, in Marijampil, a new Greek-Catholic Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross was built and consecrated. The Ukrainian reading hall, "Prosviti" was re-opened in 1927. In its halls, the group "Moločars’ka spilka," (Milkmen's Co-operative), the "Sil's’kyj hospodar" store, "Xliborobs’ka byškil," the "Vlasna pomič" (Self-help) co-operative, the patriotic organisation, "Sokoly", and other such groups as library, a children's daycare, that was ran by the sisters of Father Basil Motjuk, Stephanija and Ol’ha. From 1935, an underground station of the Ukrainian Insurgent Army(UIA) was headquartered in Marijamil.
The most tragic years for Marijampil were 1939-1950. After the first entry of the Soviet army in 1940, 20 Polish and all religiously active families were deported to Siberia. On December 19th, 1940, the German
Gestaposhot 12 members of the UIA. During the night of September 23rd/24th, the UIA killed the Roman Catholic pastor Father Marcin Bosak. On Good Friday 1947, agents of the NKVDarrest Father Hončar, who had refused to renounce the Greek Catholic Church.
During the years of the German occupation, all the Jews of Marijampil were sent to a ghetto and later killed in an unknown place. The Jewish cemetery, which had its first burial in 173, was completely ruined by the Germans; with the headstones being used to pave sidewalks.
During the second coming of the Soviet army, a garrison of NKVD soldiers was stationed in the Castle hill. Agents of this new government created a Polish organisation that took part in the burning of the neighbouring Ukrainian town of
Tumyr, where a division of the UIA was based. Vovčkiv, by the end of war was the base for a division of the Polish Armia Krajowaof the Prikarpatje, which as revenge for the burning of Tumyr, was burned by the UIA during the night of March 29th/30th, 1944. Almost 60 people were killed in Vovčkiv. During the population exchange of Poles and Ukrainians of the 1945-1952, all most all of the Poles in Marijampil were sent to Wrocławand Opolein Poland. Ukrainians from the Sanregion and Lemkivščyna in Poland replaced the evacuated Poles.
During the start of September 1949, in the "Dibrova" Forest near Marijampil, the UIA leader "Saner" was killed by the NKVD. As a result, a new group of families from Marijampil were sent to Siberia.
After the fall of the Communist regime, Polish-Ukrainian ties in Marijampil were renewed. Each year, both communities exchange visits between Marijampil and Wrocław.
Miraculous Icon of the Our Lady of Marijampil
The main symbol of Marijampil, from its very first beginnings, has been the painted cloth containing an image of
Our Lady. Since it was brought to this town by its founder Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski, the icon has guarded the inhabitants of Marijampil from misfortunates and fortified them against evil.
Many researchers think that the beginnings of this icon date to the 16th century, and whose painter was influenced by the work of the famous painter
Raphael Santi. Other believe that an earlier date is possible for this icon. In fact, H. H. Hoffman believes that this icon was painted by Byzantine masters.
This icon was placed in the field chapel of the royal hetman Stanisław Jan Jabłonowski during his battle at Chotin (1673), Zurawny (1676), and the Siege of Vienna in 1683, as well as his countless campaigns in the Volyn, Podilia, and Bukovyna regions. It was believed by the soldiers of Jablonowski that this icon gave them victory and thus it came to be known as the "Hetman," "Knightly," or "Victorious" icon of Our Lady.
After Jabłonowski's wars, the icon was placed in his new castle in Marijampil. The image of Our Lady with the Infant Jesus was placed on the coat-of-arms of the city. The grandson of the hetman, Jan Kajetan Jablonowski, in 1721, placed the icon in the newly built wooden church of the Holy Trinity. In 1733, the icon was noted to weep, which lead the inhabitants of Marijampil to built a new stone church.
The icon not only attracted soldiers, but also the inhabitants, by its powers. In time, healings of the sick, cleansing of the sinned, and conversion of the pagans were attributed to the icon. The icon was declared officially miraculous in 1737. The news of this icon travelled all over Europe due to the praise given by printers, writers, and polemists. The wife of Jan Kaietan Jablonowski, Theresa from Wilgorska created for the icon a silver crown and gown. In 1752-1788, the priest Wojec Bilinsky donated silver and gems to the icon. The miraculous nature of the icon is catalogued in W. Urban's work "The icon of the Mother of God of Marijampil in Wrocław" (Wrocław, 1981, in Polish). In 1936, the icon was restored by the Lvivsky artist Jurii Janiš.
During the postwar population exchange, the icon was saved by the Polish community from the hands of the atheistic communists and brought to Poland. At first the icon was placed in the church in Glubczuc, where it was restored by Marian Pacyn. At the start of 1950s, the icon was transferred to Wrocław to the church of the Sisters of Nazareth. In 1965, four Polish bishops, including the future Pope, but then Archbishop of Kraków,
John Paul II, festivally transferred the "Knightly Icon of Our Lady" to the newly built, 13-storey church on Piesk in Wrocław. Sometime in the next 20 years, a thief stole the silver crown. A new coronation was performed on September 10th in the presence of the Primate of Poland Józef Glemp.
In the 1990s, a copy of the miraculous Icon of the Marijampilian Mother of God was given by the Polish Marijampilians to the Ukrainian inhabitants of Marijampil. It was placed in a side altar of the Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross.
Historical and Religious Monuments
*Miraculous Icon of the Mother of God from 16th century (a copy)
*Ruins of the castle, palace, fortress from the end of the 17/th century
*Former Capuchin monastery of the 18/th century (after the Second World War, it was used as child centre, a medical centre, and currently it is used as prison).
*The Church of the Exaltation of the Holy Cross: built in 1930 and now shared by both the Greek-Catholic and Ukrainian Orthodox-Kievan Patriarchate members.
*Spring with miraculous and healing waters, especially for those suffering from ailments to the eyes and head. According to local lore, it is the location of an apparition of Our Lady.
*Ukrainian version of this article: [http://uk.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=%D0%9C%D0%B0%D1%80%D1%96%D1%8F%D0%BC%D0%BF%D1%96%D0%BB%D1%8C&oldid=1603370|June 15th, 2008 Ukrainian version of this article]
* Маріямпіль - місто Марії. "Нова зоря", Івано-Франківськ, 2003 р., 143 с.
(All in Ukrainian)
* [http://mariampil.io.com.ua Маріїне містечко - Маріямпіль]
* [http://www.geocities.com/dnistrove/MarynopilEt2.html Дністровські ремінісценції]
* [http://gska2.rada.gov.ua:7777/pls/z7502/A036?rdat1=30.06.2004&vf7551=632 Сервер Верховної Ради]
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.