- Gender differences
A Gender difference is a distinction of biological and/or physiological characteristics typically associated with either males or females of a species in general. In the study of humans, socio-political issues arise in classifying whether a sex difference results from the
biology of gender. This article focuses on quantitative differences which are based on a gradient and involve different averages. For example, men are taller than women on average, but an individual woman may be taller than an individual man.
Other articles describe differences which clearly represent a binary male/female split, such as
Though some sex differences are controversial, they are not to be confused with sexist
Possible causes: some theories
The existence of a gender difference does not necessarily identify whether the trait is due to nature or environment. Some traits are obviously innate (for example, reproductive organs), others obviously environmental (for example, given names), while for others the relationship is either multi-cause or unknown.
From the viewpoint of
evolutionary psychology(championed by David Buss, Steven Pinker, Desmond Morris, Daniel Dennett, and others) modern humans have inherited natural traits that were adaptive in a prehistoric environment, including traits that had different advantages for males versus females (see Sexual selection). Evolutionary theory of sexconsiders gender differences as a result of distinct specialization of the sexes, performing relationship with preceding generations (inheritance) and with the environment (variability).ref|Geodakian Theoryclarifyme explains ethological and psychological sexual dimorphism, more efficient "education" or "training" of femalesclarifyme during the course of ontogenetic adaptationas well as greater conformismof femalesdubious well known to psychologists.ref|Harperref|McCoby Gender roletheory and Alice Eaglyclaims that boys and girls learn the appropriate behavior and attitudes from the family and overall culture they grow up with, and so non-physical gender differences are a product of socialization. These are not all mutually exclusive theories: it is possible that gender differences are partially innate but are then reinforced and exaggerated by the environment.
feminists see gender differences as caused by patriarchyor discrimination, although difference feminismargues for an acceptance of gender differences. Conservative masculists tend to see gender differences as inherent in human nature, while liberal masculists see gender differences as caused by matriarchyor discrimination.
Abrahamic religionssee gender differences as created by God: "He made them in his Role of women in Judaism, Christian views of women, Gender roles in Islam).
From conception to death, but particularly before adulthood, females are less vulnerable than males to developmental difficulties and chronic illnesses. ["Neurologic and Developmental Disability at Six Years of Age after Extremely Preterm Birth" / Neil Marlow et al / New England Journal of Medicine 352 #1 (2005)] ["The Fragile Male" / Sebastien Kraemer / British Medical Journal 321 (2000)] This could be due to females having two
x chromosomesinstead of just one, ["Pas De Deux of Sexuality is Written in the Genes" / Nicholas Wade / New York Times, 10 April 2007] or being unexposed to testosterone. ["Men: Evolutionary and Life History" / Richard Bribiescas (2008) ISBN 0674030346 ] Neurology
Female brains are more compact than male brains in that, though smaller, they are more densely packed with
neurons, particularly in the region responsible for language. ["Women have greater density of neurons in posterior temporal cortex" /Sandra Wittelson / Journal of Neuroscience #15 (1995)] Also, females have language functions evenly distributed in both cerebral hemispheres, while in males they are more concentrated in the left hemisphere. This puts males more at risk for language disorders like dyslexia.
In one large scale study, most cognitive abilities and psychological traits showed little or no average difference between the sexes ref|hyde. Where sex differences exist, there is often considerable overlap between the sexesref|reason; in addition, it is unclear how many of these differences hold true across different cultures. Nevertheless, certain trends tend to be found.
In many situations, men are more prone to taking risks.ref|riskCareers of men are often more dangerous because of this. Men also have a higher rate of promiscuous
* In the
big five personality traits, women score higher in Agreeableness (tendency to be compassionate and cooperative) and Neuroticism (tendency to feel anxiety, anger, and depression).Fact|date=July 2008
* Demographics of
MBTIsurveys indicate that 60-75% of women prefer feeling and 55-80% of men prefer thinking.ref|captref|aapt
Males are generally more aggressive than females (Coi & Dodge 1997, Maccoby & Jacklin 1974, Buss 2005). There is evidence that males are quicker to aggression (Frey et al 2003) and more likely than females to express their aggression physically (Bjorkqvist et al. 1994). However, some researchers (such as
Rachel Simmons) have suggested that females are not necessarily less aggressive, but that they tend to show their aggression in less overt, less physical ways (Bjorkqvist et al. 1994, Hines and Saudino 2003). For example, females may display more verbal and relational aggression, such as social rejection.
ystematizing and empathizing
Females score higher on self-report scales of
empathy, on samples ranging from school-age children to adults. Empathy scales include measures of perspective taking, orientation towards another person, empathic concern, and personal distress. However, such measures are subjective and empathy may be more related to gender rolerather than sex.ref|Karniol Simon Baron-Cohen's EQ SQ Theoryclaims that, in general, men are better at systematizing (the desire to analyze and explore systems and rules) and that women are better at empathizing (the ability to identify with other people’s feelings). More males than females are diagnosed with autismand Asperger syndrome. According to Cohen, since autistic and Asperger individuals are very high in systematizing, albeit often in a manner which is hyperfocused, and may even oversimplify more complex systems due to missing certain details, and very low in empathizing as well, they are examples of an "extreme male brain." ref|cohen
Many recent studies have concluded that IQ performances of men and women vary little. [ [http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6W4M-49N9FHG-1&_user=10& Gender differences in cognitive abilities: The mediating role of health state and health habits (2002)] Anthony F. JormCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Kaarin J. Anstey, Helen Christensen and Bryan Rodgers - Abstract: Gender differences were examined in performance on the California Verbal Learning Test (immediate and delayed recall), Digit Span Backwards, Symbol–Digit Modalities Test, Spot-the-Word, and simple and choice reaction time. The data came from a community survey involving 2404 people aged 20–24 years, 2530 aged 40–44 years, and 2551 aged 60–64 years. When mediating variables were controlled, gender differences tended to disappear on tests for which there was a male advantage and to magnify on tests for which there was a female advantage."] [ [http://books.google.com/books?id=1rDh9EUwy1oC&pg=PA68&vq=gender+difference&dq=%22gender+difference%22+intelligence&source=gbs_search_s&sig=ACfU3U2vwfJIJQLrB1jN4DLbhaKq_GuXWQ#PPA171,M1 Developmental Influences on Adult Intelligence: The Seattle Longitudinal] ] cite journal | author=Larry V. Hedges; Amy Nowell | title=Sex Differences in Mental Test Scores, Variability, and Numbers of High-Scoring Individuals | journal=Science | year=1995 | volume=269 | pages=41-45] [ [Intelligence: Knowns and Unknowns http://www.lrainc.com/swtaboo/taboos/apa_01.html] ] . However, one researcher in the United Kingdom,
Richard Lynn, has authored research showing advantages to men of variable statistical significance. [ Lynn, R. (1999). Sex differences in intelligence and brain size: A developmental theory. Intelligence, 27, 1-12 ] [ Lynn, R., & Irwing, P. (2004). Sex differences on the Progressive Matrices: A meta-analysis. Intelligence, 32, 481-498 ] Other studies show a greater variancein the IQ performance of men compared to that of women, i.e. men are more represented at the extremes of performance, and less represented at the median.cite journal | author=IJ Deary, G Thorpe, V Wilson, JM Starr, LJ Whalley | title=Population sex differences in IQ at age 11: the Scottish mental survey 1932 | journal=Intelligence | year=2003 | volume=31 | pages=533–542] [Ian J. Deary, Paul Irwing, Geoff Der and Timothy C. Bates. Brother–sister differences in the g factor in intelligence: Analysis of full, opposite-sex siblings from the NLSY1979. Intelligence, In Press. doi|10.1016/j.intell.2006.09.003]
Deborah Tannen’s studies found these gender differences in communication styles:ref|tannen
*Men tend to talk more than women in public situations, but women tend to talk more than men at home.
*Females are more inclined to face each other and make eye contact when talking, while males are more likely to look away from each other.
*Boys tend to jump from topic to topic, but girls tend to talk at length about one topic.
*When listening, women make more noises such as “mm-hmm” and “uh-huh”, while men are more likely to listen silently.
*Women are inclined to express agreement and support, while men are more inclined to debate.
The studies also reported that in general both sexes communicated in similar ways ref|macgeorge. Critics, including
Suzette Haden Elgin, have suggested that Tannen's findings may apply more to women of certain specific cultural and economic groups than to women in general. Although it is widely believed that women speak far more words than men, this is actually not the case.ref|Psychology Today, 2007
See also|stereotypesAccording to Niedenthal et al.,ref|niedenthal
*Women are more emotionally expressive.
*Women are more emotionally responsive.
*Women are more empathetic.
*Women are more sensitive to others' feelings.
*Women are more obsessed with having children.
*Women express their feelings without constraint, except for the emotion of
*Women pay more attention to
*Women better judge emotions from
*Women express more
love, fear, and sadness.
gaze, and smilemore.
*Women anticipate negative consequences for expressing anger and
*Men are overwhelmed by women's expressions of emotion.
*Men express more
*Men control their
*Men restrain from expressing their feelings.
*Men show emotion to communicate dominance.
Notice how almost every female trait presented is a positive expression, while every male trait is spectacularly negative. This is an example of the recently emerged bias in western society towards female superiority and gender stereotypes as a whole dubious.
Stereotypescreate expectations regarding emotional expression and emotional reaction. Many studies find that emotional stereotypes and the display of emotions "correspond to actual gender differences in experiencing emotion and expression."ref|niedenthal
Stereotypes dictate how and by whom and when it is socially acceptable to display an emotion. Reacting in a stereotype-consistent manner results in social approval with reacting in a stereotype-inconsistement manner results in disapproval.
Experience and Expression
See also|experience See also|expressionWhen measured with an
affectintensity measure, women reported greater intensity of both positive and negative affect than men. Women also reported a more intense and more frequent experience of affect, joy, and love. Women also reported a more intense and more frequent experience of embarrassment, guilt, shame, sadness, anger, fear, and distress. Experiencing pride was more frequent and intense for men than for women.ref|niedenthal
Men and women use different cognitive strategies when coping with emotional situations. Women are more prone to depression because of their tendency to dwell on the causes of negative emotions while men distract themselves from dwelling on these emotions.ref|nolen
Women have a greater affect intensity, which makes them more prone to "self-referring, overgeneralizing, and selective attention to emotional information, which may lead to more intense emotional reactions." (282)ref|niedenthalref|fujita Women's larger emotional experience is likely also "due to their greater awareness of emotions in both themselves and others." (282)ref|niedenthalref|feldman Women also have a tendency to catch others' emotions, known as emotional contagion.ref|hatfield
See also|heuristicWhen lacking substantial emotion information they can base judgments on, people tend to rely more on gender stereotypes. Results from a study conducted by Robinson and colleaguesref|robinson showed that participants relied more on
stereotypeswhen imagining the average man or woman's emotional reaction than when imagining their own emotional reaction. The study also showed that when placed in the same situation men and women experience parallel emotions.
Some observers were placed in a hypothetical situation. These observers believed that male players would display more masculine emotions while female players expressed feminine emotions. The observers that watched an actual game failed to evaluate the female and male players' emotions differently.
The findings of this study imply gender
stereotypesas more influential when judging others' emotions in a hypothetical situation. Also, with minimal or no available relevant emotional information, men and women depend on gender stereotypesto fill in lacking information. Contextalso determines a man or woman's emotional behavior. Context-based emotion norms, such as feeling rules or display rules, "prescribe emotional experience and expressions in specific situations like a weddingor a funeral," (290)ref|niedenthal independent of the person's gender. In situations like a wedding or a funeral, the activated emotion norms apply to and constrain every person in the situation. Gender differences are more pronounced when situational demands are very small or non-existent as well as ambiguous situations. During these situations, gender norms "are the default option that prescribes emotional behavior." (291)ref|niedenthal
See also|decoding methodsDecoding can be defined as a "capacity to judge, to interpret and to identify others' emotions from nonverbal cues." (295)ref|niedenthal Typically, women are more accurate in decoding nonverbal cues' emotional meaning.Fact|date=July 2008 Developmental research suggests that a woman's ability to identify another's emotion is not
innatebut instead caused by the socialization process.
*In 1980, 3- to 5- year-old children and adults identified the
sexof “gender-neutral puppy dogs depicting happy, angry, fearful, and sad emotions”ref|niedenthal for Birnbaum and colleagues. This experiment measured the children’s and adult’s stereotypesconcerning sex differences in emotional expression. Both children and adults attributed the happy-, sad- and fearful-looking puppies with the female sex and the angry-looking puppies with the male sex.
*A Cambridge University lab showed that at birth girls gaze longer at a face while suspended mechanical mobiles, rather than a face, keep boy’s attention for longer. The Cambridge team also found that the amount of eye contact children make is partially determined by prenatal
testosterone, a biological factor. ref|cohen
*Studies that measure facial expression by the use of
electromyographyrecordings show that women are more adequately able to manipulate their facial expressions than men. Men, however can inhibit their expressions better than females when cued to do so. In the observer ratings women’s facial expressions are easier to read as opposed to men’s except for the expression of anger.ref|niedenthal.
*According to a study done by Hall and Matsumoto, “women are more accurate than men in judging emotional meaning from
nonverbalcues even under situations of minimal stimulus information.”ref|hall
*In a study where researchers wanted to concentrate on nonverbal expressions by just looking at the eyebrows, lips, and the eyes, participants read certain cue cards that were either negative or positive and recorded the responses. In the results of this experiment it is shown that feminine emotions happen more frequently and have a higher intensity than men. In relation to the masculine emotions, such as anger, the results are flipped and the women’s
frequencyand intensityis lower than the men’s.ref|oh
*In imagined frightening situations, such as being home alone and witnessing a stranger walking towards your house, women reported greater fear. Women also reported more fear in situations that involved "a male's hostile and
aggressive behavior" (281)ref|niedenthal In anger-eliciting situations, women communicated more intense feelings of anger than men. Women also reported more intense feelings of anger in relation to terrifying situations, especially situations involving a male protagonist.ref|brody
Emotion, Gender, and Culture
A number of studies have been conducted in western cultures for the most part, specifically North America and Western Europe. Most of the research has indicated that sex differences in expressing emotion tend to be greater in North America than in other cultures, particularly
Culture impacts gender differences in the expression of emotions. This may be partly explained by the different social roles (
social role) men and women have in different cultures, and by the statusand powermen and women hold in different societies, as well as the different cultural values various societies hold.ref|niedenthal
A commentary released by
Pew Research Centeraddressed some questions about the way men and women view their lives:ref|happiness
*Overall, women claim to be far happier than men with their lives, and reported more often that they had made personal progress in the last five years.
* Women show greater concern about family and home life issues, while men express more concern about political issues. Men are happier with their family life and more optimistic about their personal future and that of their children.
Problems with research
Studies of psychological gender differences are controversial and subject to error. Many small-scale studies report differences that are not repeated in larger studies. Self-report questionnaires are subject to bias, particularly if the subjects are told that the questionnaire is testing for gender roles. It is also possible that commentators may exaggerate or downplay differences for ideological reasons.
In many countries, there is a gender income gap which favors males in the
labor market. For example, the median full-time salary for U.S. women is 77% of that of U.S. men. Several factors other than discrimination may contribute to this gap. On average, women are more likely than men to consider factors other than pay when looking for work, are less willing to travel or relocate, and work fewer hours per week.http://www.forbes.com/ceonetwork/2006/05/12/women-wage-gap-cx_wf_0512earningmore.html] [ [http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2007/04/02/AR2007040201262.html Carrie Lukas - A Bargain At 77 Cents To a Dollar - washingtonpost.com ] ] Thomas Sowell, in his book Knowledge and Decisions, claims that this difference is due to women not taking jobs due to marriage or pregnancy. The income gap in other countries ranges from 53% in Botswana to -40% in Bahrain. [ [http://www.vedior.com/hr-portal/recruitment-news/women-earn-less-than-men-across-the-globe.html?c=3052 Women 'earn less than men across the globe' | Vedior - Global Employment News ] ]
In the United States, among women and men who never marry or have children, women make more than men. Additionally, women who work part-time make more on average than men who work part-time. [ [http://article.nationalreview.com/?q=MWFmYmFmMThhZjhhOGVjM2Y4MTE5ZGQxMWM0M2M0ZGI= Carrie Lukas on Wage Gap on National Review Online ] ]
According to a 2004 report by the US department of labor ref|labor:
*52.9% of American women are in the labor force versus 73.3% of men.
*70.7% of women with children under 18 are in the workforce (up from 47% in 1975), compared with 94% of men with children under 18.
*Approximately 26 percent of employed women usually work part time, compared with about 11 percent of employed men.
*5.6% of employed women and 8% of men are self-employed.
*Women in nonagricultural industries work 35.9 hours per week versus 41.6 hours for men.
*Women account for more than half of all workers in the following industries: financial activities, education services, healthcare, leisure and hospitality, and office and administrative support. Women are far more likely than men to be social workers, paralegals and legal assistants, teachers, nurses, speech pathologists, dental hygienists, maids and housekeeping cleaners, and childcare workers.
*More men than women work in the following industries: mining, construction, transportation and utilities, farming, computer and mathematical occupations, engineering, and architecture. Men are more likely than women to be chief executives, firefighters, police and patrol officers, electricians, dentists, and surgeons.
The majority of occupational deaths occur among men. In one U.S. study, 93% of deaths on the job involved men, with a death rate approximately 11 times higher than women. The industries with the highest death rates are mining, agriculture, forestry, fishing, and construction, all of which employ more men than women.ref|jobdeath
Many countries, including Mexico, India, Germany, Brazil, and Australia require companies to grant 12-week
maternity leavefor working women at full pay. Paternity leaveis not available to the same extent, although in Israel for example, parents can use this parental leave as they see fit, dividing the 12 weeks among themselves if necessary regardless of sex. Another example is Sweden where there is equal rights to take maternity/paternity leave. The duration is 18 months per child with 80% of full pay. Each parent must be at home minimum 60 days to qualify for the maximum pay.
Insurance companies often charge different rates for men and women:
Health insuranceis less expensive for young and middle aged men.Fact|date=July 2008
Automobile insurancecompanies charge more for teenage boys than their female counterparts.
Life insuranceis higher for males than for females.
Price discriminationcan favour either men or women. For example, some night clubs offer discounts or free entry for women, while some hairdressers offer cheaper haircuts for men.
According to a 2000 report, women purchase or influence the purchase of 80% of all
consumer goodsand influence 80% of health-care decisions ref|marketing.
Worldwide, men are more likely to be literate, with 100 men considered literate for every 88 women. In some countries the difference is even greater; for example, in Bangladesh only 62 women are literate for every 100 men ref|illiteracy.
In an OECD study of 43 developed countries, 15-year-old boys were ahead of girls in literacy skills and were more confident than girls about getting high-income jobs ref|OECD. However, in the United States, girls are significantly ahead of boys in writing ability at all levels of primary and secondary education. [ [http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d07/tables/dt07_119.asp Percentage of students attaining writing achievement levels, by grade level and selected student characteristics: 2002 ] ] However, boys are slightly ahead of girls in mathematics ability. [ [http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d07/tables/dt07_131.asp Average mathematics scale scores of 4th-, 8th-, and 12th-graders, by selected student and parent characteristics and school type: 2000, 2003, and 2005 ] ]
In some countries within the last generation, there has been a significant increase in women accessing tertiary education compared to men. In the United States in 2005-2006, women earned more Associate's, Bachelor's, and Master's degrees than men, but men earned more Doctorates. [ [http://nces.ed.gov/programs/digest/d07/tables/dt07_178.asp Historical summary of faculty, students, degrees, and finances in degree-granting institutions: Selected years, 1869-70 through 2005-06 ] ] This is repeated in other countries; for example, women make up 58% of admissions in the UK ref|guardian and 60% in Iran ref|iran.
In western countries, males are much more likely to die by suicide than females (usually by a factor of 3–4:1); 69 out of 74 non-western countries found an excess male mortality from suicide.
While there are more completed male suicides than female, females are more likely to attempt suicide. One possible explanation is that males tend to use more immediately lethal methods than females,who use less violent methods while attempting suicide. Another theory is that females are more likely to use self-harm as a cry for help or attention while males are more likely to genuinely want to end their lives.Fact|date=May 2007
Males between the ages of 20-24 have suicide rate that is seven times higher than women. In 2003, a study showed that 202,500 males and 34,000 females between the ages of 20 and 24 committed suicide. [http://www.faculty.fairfield.edu/.../youthsuicide.htm]
Men are much more likely to be incarcerated than women, although women are a fast-growing demographic group in prison.ref|incarceration
Malesare more likely than femalesto commit murder.ref|homicide Men are also far more likely than women to be the victims of violent crime.ref|victims
In an American study, the percentage of men using the
Internetwas ahead of the percentage of women, although this difference disappeared in those under 30. Men log on more often, spend more time online, and are more likely to be broadbandusers. Men are more likely to use the Internet to pay bills, participate in auctions, and for recreation such as downloading music and videos. Men and women are equally likely to use the Internet for shopping and banking.ref|internet
Gender-related preferences in web site design
A study was performed at the University of Maryland in 2007Fact|date=May 2007Specify|date=May 2007 which was designed to determine gender differences in preference for various aspects of web site design. Previous studies, in particular one performed at the University of Glamorgan [http://www.glam.ac.uk/news/releases/003056.php, Key website research highlights gender bias] , indicated measurable differences between men and women, with each gender tending to prefer sites designed by their own gender. Women showed a preference for pages with more color in the background and typeface, and more rounded shapes. Women also favored informal rather than posed pictures. Men responded better to dark colors and a more linear design. They also were more pleased by a three-dimensional look and images of “self-propelling” rather than stationary objects. The Maryland study sought to confirm these differences.
The subjects were given pairs of web sites to visit and were asked to fill out a short questionnaire immediately afterward. The questionnaires asked simple questions about their reaction to the colors, graphics, site organization as well as an
open-ended questionin which they were asked to describe their subjective impressions of the sites. Web sites were selected to present significant design dissimilarities so as to assess differences in site design preference. One pair was specifically selected because the sites themselves targeted at male and female users respectively.
The results generally supported earlier research. Women showed a distinct preference for more color and graphics. In addition, while the object scores for the male and female-targeted sites were not significantly different, women showed a significantly higher preference for the female-targeted site. However, it is clear from the responses to the open-ended questions that site content was a significant factor in determine preference for one site over another. It is therefore suggested that in any future study real web sites not be used, but instead neutral-content sites should be designed with variations in style, to eliminate the bias introduced by the site content.
Marriage and sexuality
Dating and marriage customs are dependent on culture and differ greatly across countries and even in subcultures within the same country. For example, many marriages in India are arranged, whereas in the Western World most people choose their own partners. In most societies, men are generally expected to play the more active role in the early stages of
courtship, for example in asking the woman for a date.
Age at first marriage
Men are older, on average, when they marry.
demographics of sexual orientationin any population is difficult to establish with reasonable accuracy. However, most surveys find that a greater proportion of men than women report that they are exclusively homosexual, whereas more women than men report being bisexual. Fact|date=July 2008 In most societies, homosexual and bisexual women are more widely accepted than their male counterparts. Fact|date=July 2008
Studies have shown that heterosexual men are only aroused by images of women. Whereas some women who claim to be heterosexual are aroused by images of both men and women. [ [http://www.nytimes.com/2007/04/10/health/10gene.html?ex=1187236800&en=b8ee8ae30451c2e9&ei=5070 Pas de Deux of Sexuality Is Written in the Genes] ] However, this may be the result of differences in how arousal is measured since different methods are required for the anatomy of a man versus that of a woman.
Numbers of unmarried people
In the USA, single men are greatly outnumbered by single women at a ratio of 100 single women to every 86 single men ref|oaklandtribune. This very much depends on age group, with 118 single men per 100 single women in their 20s, versus 33 single men to 100 single women over 65.ref|single
The numbers are different in other countries. For example, China has many more young men than young women, and this disparity is expected to increase.ref|China In regions with recent conflict such as Chechnya, women may greatly outnumber men.ref|Chechnya
Choosing a partner
In a cross-cultural study by
David Buss, men and women were asked to rank certain traits in order of importance in a long-term partner. Both men and women ranked "kindness" and "intelligence" as the two most important factors. Men valued beauty and youth more highly than women, while women valued financial and social status more highly than men.ref|buss
orgasmis essential for reproduction whereas female orgasm is not. The female orgasm was believed to have no obvious function other than to be pleasurable although recent evidence suggests that it may have evolved as a discriminatory advantage in regards to mate selection. [http://psychologytoday.com/articles/index.php?term=pto-1206.html&fromMod=popular, Psychology Today, "The Orgasm Wars"]
* According to
Kinsey, for about 75% of all males, orgasm is possible to be attained within the first four minutes after initiation of sexual intercourse. For women the average time to reach orgasm is between 10 and 20 minutes. The swiftness of the male system virtually guarantees climactic orgasms for males (except for those suffering from delayed ejaculation) but is usually too quick to give the female a penetration-induced orgasm.Fact|date=July 2008 However, the average time to female orgasm via masturbation is significantly less at four minutes Fact|date=October 2007 (those two citations contain nothing on the average orgasm masturbation time)ref|sexualrecords ref|orgasm.
circumcision(removal of the foreskin) does not prevent the ability to orgasm, but female genital cuttingusually does. However, the two procedures are not directly comparableDubious|date=May 2008; in particular, the phrase "female genital cutting" is used to refer to a wide variety of different practices, from minor ritual cuts to the labia (which are much less likely to impede orgasm) to complete excision of the outer clitoris.
In most cultures, different sorts of clothing are considered appropriate for men and women.
*In Western societies,
skirts and dresses and high-heeled shoes are usually seen as women's clothing, while neckties are generally worn by men. Trouserswere once seen as exclusively male clothing, but are nowadays worn by both sexes. Male clothes are often more practical (that is, they can function well under a wide variety of situations), but a wider range of clothing styles is available for females. Males are typically allowed to bare their chests in a greater variety of public places. It is generally acceptable, to some degree, for a woman to wear traditionally male clothing, but not the other way around.
* In some cultures,
sumptuary laws regulate what men and women are required to wear.
*Islam requires both sexes to wear
hijab, or modest clothing. What qualifies as "modest" varies in different Muslim societies; however, women are usually required to cover more of their bodies than men are. Articles of clothing worn by Muslim women for purposes of modesty range from the headscarfto the burqa.
*Scottish men may choose to wear
kilts on ceremonial occasions. Kilts were previously worn as normal clothing by men. Men not of Scottish descent are increasingly wearing kilts today.
*Compared to men's clothing, women's clothing tends to address being looked at.Fact|date=July 2008 In the modern West, women are more likely to wear makeup, jewelry, and colorful clothing, while in very traditional cultures women are protected from men's gazes by modest dress.
* Men have more responsibilities and presence in many religions or religious organizations. For example, the
Roman Catholic churchforbids women from being ordained as priests.
* Some religions place restrictions on women during their
menstrual cycle. [ [http://www.orthodoxinfo.com/praxis/menses.aspx Menstruation, Emissions, and Holy Communion ] ]
* Men and boys participate in more
* Women take longer to use the bathroom (see
* Typically, women spend more time than men doing
childcareand household chores (see homemaker). This may be due to lack of interest on the part of fathers, or from mothers barring fathers from equal roles in parenting. [ [http://dir.salon.com/story/mwt/feature/2000/06/12/gatekeeping/index.html?sid=818130 The mama lion at the gate - Salon.com ] ]
* In general, women are more involved than men with
children.Fact|date=July 2008 In general, men are more likely to be accused of pedophilia, which may lead them to avoid children. [ [http://online.wsj.com/public/article/SB118782905698506010.html Are We Teaching Our Kids To Be Fearful of Men? - WSJ.com ] ]
* Generally, males take more of an interest in
video gamesthan do females although certain genres have a large number of female players as well.
Sociology of gender
List of homologues of the human reproductive system
# [http://www.geodakian.com/en/30_Sex_Theory_en.htm The Evolutionary Theory of Sex]
# Harper E. B., Howing W. K., Holm G., Dubanovsky I. (1965) “Young Children's Yielding to False Adult Judgment”, Child Development, Lo, p. 175-183.
# Mc Coby E. E. (1966) “The Development of Sex Differences”, Stanford Univ.Press, Stanford, Calif.
# [http://www.pg.com/science/skincare/Skin_tws_37.htm Gender-related features of skin] Procter & Gamble Haircare Research Centre 1997
# Bren, Linda (2005) [http://www.fda.gov/fdac/features/2005/405_sex.html Does Sex Make a Difference?] FDA Consumer magazine, July-August 2005 Issue
# Marano, Hara Estroff (2003) [http://www.psychologytoday.com/articles/PTO-20030624-000003.html The New Sex Scorecard] Psychology Today Magazine, Publication Date: Jul/Aug 2003, Last Reviewed: 9 Sep 2005
# Harasty J, Double KL, Halliday GM, Kril JJ, McRitchie DA. (1997) [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=9041858&dopt=Abstract Language-associated cortical regions are proportionally larger in the female brain] Archives of Neurology 1997 Feb;54(2):171-6.
# Frederikse ME, Lu A, Aylward E, Barta P, Pearlson G. (1999) [http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=10601007&dopt=Abstract Sex differences in the inferior parietal lobe] Cerebral Cortex. 1999 Dec;9(8):896-901
# [http://www.who.int/countries/en/ WHO Countries] A list that provides links to statistics on various countries, including life expectancy.
# [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/uk/4252036.stm Lifestyle 'hits life length gap'] BBC September 16, 2005
# [http://www.newtimes.ru/eng/detail.asp?art_id=1537 A Country of Widows] Viktor Perevedentsev, New Times, May 2006
# [http://www.who.int/gender/documents/en/ Gender, women, and health] Reports from WHO 2002-2005
# Hyde, J. S. (2005) PDFlink| [http://www.apa.org/journals/releases/amp606581.pdf The Gender Similarities Hypothesis] |129 KiB American Psychologist, Vol. 60, No. 6, pp. 581-592. See also: [http://www.psychologymatters.org/nodifference.html Men and Women: No Big Difference] on the APA-sponsored website, [http://www.psychologymatters.org www.psychologymatters.org] .
# Young, Cathy (1999) [http://reason.com/9903/fe.cy.sex.shtml Sex and Sensibility] Reason, March 1999
# Larkin, Judith E. (2003) [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_5-6_49/ai_107203498 Gender and risk in public performance] Sex Roles: A Journal of Research
# [http://www.capt.org/mbti-assessment/estimated-frequencies.htm Estimated Frequencies of the Types in the United States Population]
# PDFlink| [http://www.aapt.org.au/pdf/research/type_research_aptr_mar%202001_gender.pdf Gender differences in the distribution of types in Australia] |52.1 KiB
#Rachel Karniol, Rivi Gabay, Yael Ochion, Yael Harari (1998) [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m2294/is_n1-2_v39/ai_21136460 Is gender or gender-role orientation a better predictor of empathy in adolescence?] Sex Roles: A Journal of Research, July, 1998
# Baron-Cohen, Simon (2003) [http://www.guardian.co.uk/print/0,3858,4649492-111414,00.html 'They just can't help it'] The Guardian April 17, 2003
# Nolen-Hoeksema, S. (1987). Sex differences in unipolar depression: Evidence and theory. Psychological Bulletin, 101, 259-282.
# Brody, L., Lovas, G., Hay, D. (1995) Gender differences in anger and fear as a function of situational context. Sex Roles, 32, 47-78.
# Fujita et al. (1991) Gender differences in negative affect and well-being: The case for emotional intensity. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 61, 427-434.
# Feldman Barrett, L., Lane, R., Sechrest, L., & Schwartz, G. (2000) Sex differences in emotional awareness. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 26, 1027-1035
# Hatfield, E., Cacioppo, J.T., & Rapson, R.L. (1994) Emotional contagion. New York: Cambridge University Press.
# Tannen, Deborah (1990) [http://www.georgetown.edu/faculty/tannend/sexlies.htm Sex, Lies and Conversation; Why Is It So Hard for Men and Women to Talk to Each Other?] The Washington Post, June 24, 1990
# MacGeorge, Erina (2004) [http://www.purdue.edu/UNS/html4ever/2004/040217.MacGeorge.sexroles.html Purdue study shows men, women share same planet] Purdue News, February 17, 2004
# Liberman, Mark (2006) [http://itre.cis.upenn.edu/~myl/languagelog/archives/003420.html Sex-Linked Lexical Budgets] Language Log, August 06, 2006
# Hyde, Janet Shibley and Linn, Marcia C. (1988) "Gender Differences in Verbal Ability: A Meta-Analysis", Psychological Bulletin, 104:1 53-69
# James, Deborah and Drakich, Janice (1993) "Understanding Gender Differences in Amount of Talk: A Critical Review of Research", in D. Tannen, (ed.) "Gender and Conversational Interaction". Oxford University Press: New York and Oxford.
# [http://pewglobal.org/commentary/display.php?AnalysisID=71 Global Gender Gaps: Women Like Their Lives Better] Pew Research Center October 29, 2003
#PDFlink| [http://www.bls.gov/cps/wlf-databook-2005.pdf Women in the Labor Force: A Databook] |630 KiB US Dept of Labor 2005
# [http://www.urban.org/publications/309708.html Are Teens in Low-Income and Welfare Families Working Too Much?] Robert I. Lerman, Urban Institute, November 01, 2000
# [http://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/preview/mmwrhtml/mm5016a4.htm Fatal Occupational Injuries - United States, 1980-1997] MMWR Weekly, April 27, 2001
# Popcorn, Faith and Hyperion, Lys Marigold (2000) "EVEolution – The Eight Truths of Marketing to Women" New York. (ISBN 0-7868-6523-7)
# [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/4420772.stm Illiteracy 'hinders world's poor'] BBC November 09, 2005
# [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/education/3110594.stm 'Girls top of the class worldwide'] BBC September 16, 2003
# [http://www.usatoday.com/news/education/2005-10-19-male-college-cover_x.htm?POE=NEWISVA College gender gap] USA Today October 19, 2005
# [http://education.guardian.co.uk/gendergap/story/0,7348,1218768,00.html 'Where have all the young men gone? '] The Guardian May 18, 2004
# [http://www.library.cornell.edu/colldev/mideast/irnwmnz.htm 'In Iran, More Women Leaving Nest for University'] The New York Times July 22, 2000
# [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/ascii/piusp01.txt Prevalence of Imprisonment in the U.S. Population, 1974-2001] U.S. Department of Justice Special Report, August 2003, NCJ 197976.
# [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/homicide/gender.htm Most victims and perpetrators in homicides are male] U.S. Department of Justice · Office of Justice Programs Bureau of Justice Statistics, 2004
# [http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs/pub/ascii/sdvv.txt Sex Differences in Violent Victimization] U.S. Department of Justice Special Report September 1997, NCJ-164508.
# [http://www.pewinternet.org/PPF/r/171/report_display.asp How men and women use the Internet] Pew Research Center December 28, 2005
# [http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qn4176/is_20031021/ai_n14563033 'Men hold the edge on gender gap odds'] Oakland Tribune October 21, 2003
# [http://www.census.gov/Press-Release/www/releases/archives/facts_for_features_special_editions/006116.html Facts for features: Valentine’s Day] U.S. Census Bureau Report February 7, 2006
# [http://www.countercurrents.org/gender-allison090304.htm '40m Bachelors And No Women'] The Guardian March 09, 2004
# [http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4610396.stm 'Polygamy Proposal for Chechen Men'] BBC January 13, 2006
# Scott, Kenneth (2005) [http://www.solveyourproblem.com/artman/publish/article_555.shtml 'Why Online Dating is So Tough For Men'] solveyourproblem.com February 3, 2005
# Buss, D. M. (2003). "The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating". New York: Basic Books. (ISBN 0-465-02143-3)
# [http://www.sexualrecords.com/WSRaverages.html Sexual Averages] 1997-2003 Holodyne, Inc.
# [http://www.sensualism.com/sex/orgasmic.html The story of Ohh!] The Guardian 28 April 2004
# [http://education.guardian.co.uk/higher/research/story/0,,938022,00.html They just can't help it] The Guardian 17 April 2003
# Hall, J.A. & Matsumoto, D. (2004). Gender Differences in Judgments of Multiple Emotions From Facial Expressions. American Psychological Association, 4(2), 201-206.
# Niedenthal, P.M., Kruth-Gruber, S., & Ric, F. (2006). Psychology and emotion. (Principles of Social Psychology series). ISBN 1-84169-402-9. New York: Psychology Press.
# [http://ccat.sas.upenn.edu/plc/communication/soojin.htm Explanation for the Gender Differences in Expressing Emotions] Oh, S.S. December 15, 2003
# Robinson, M.D., Johnson, J., & Shields, S. (1998) The gender heuristic and the database: Factors affecting the perception of gender-related differences in the experience and display of emotions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 20, 206-219.
# Vicki S. Psychology of Gender: Third Edition. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson education Inc, 2009.
Roy Baumeister(2007). [http://www.psy.fsu.edu/~baumeistertice/goodaboutmen.htm Is There Anything Good In Men?]
* Deaux, K. (1993). Commentary: Sorry, wrong number – A reply to Gentile’s call. Psychological Science, 4, 125-126
* Geary, D. C. (2006). Sex differences in social behavior and cognition: The utility of sexual selection for hypothesis generation. "Hormones and Behavior, 49," 273-275. [http://web.missouri.edu/~gearyd/files/Geary%20%5B2006,%20Hormones%20&%20Beh%5D.pdf Full text]
*"The Sexual Paradox: Extreme Men, Gifted Women and the Real Gender Gap" / Susan Pinker (2008) ISBN 0679314156
* Shields, S. A. (2000). Thinking about gender, thinking about theory: Gender and emotional experience. In A. Fischer (Ed.), Gender and emotion: Social Psychological perspectives (pp. 3-23). London: Cambridge University Press.
* Shields, S. A. (2002). Speaking from the heart: Gender and the social meaning of emotion. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.