- Logic in computer science
**Logic in computer science**describes topics wherelogic is applied tocomputer science andartificial intelligence . These include:*Investigations into logic that are guided by applications in computer science. For example:

Combinatory logic andAbstract interpretation ;

*Boolean logic , for the circuits used in computer processors.

*Fundamental concepts in computer science that are naturally expressible in formal logic. For example:Formal semantics of programming languages ,Hoare logic , andLogic programming ;

*Aspects of thetheory of computation that cast light on fundamental questions of formal logic. For example:Curry-Howard correspondence andGame semantics ;

*Tools for logicians considered as computer science. For example:Automated theorem proving andModel checking ;

*Logics of knowledge and beliefs (of human and artificial agents);

*Logics forspatial reasoning , e.g. about moving in Euclidean space (which should not be confused with spatial logics used for concurrent systems);

*Formal methods and logics for reasoning about computation. For examplepredicate logic andlogical framework s are used for proving programs correct, and logics such astemporal logic andspatial logic s are used for reasoning about interaction between concurrent and distributed processes. Program logics often aremodal logic s, e.g.dynamic logic orHennessy-Milner logic ;

*Specification language s provide a basis for formal software development; in this context, the notion of institution has been developed as an abstract formalization of the notion of logical system, with the goal of handling the "population explosion" of logics used in computer science.The study of basic

mathematical logic such aspropositional logic andpredicate logic (normally in conjunction withset theory ) is considered an important theoretical underpinning to any undergraduatecomputer science course.Higher order logic is not normally taught, but is important intheorem proving tools like HOL.**Books*** "Mathematical Logic for Computer Science" by Mordechai Ben-Ari. Springer-Verlag, 2nd edition,

2003 . ISBN 1-85233-319-7.

* " [*http://www.cs.bham.ac.uk/research/lics/ Logic in Computer Science: Modelling and Reasoning about Systems*] " by Michael Huth, Mark Ryan.Cambridge University Press , 2nd edition,2004 . ISBN 0-521-54310-X.

* "Logic for Mathematics and Computer Science" by Stanley N. Burris.Prentice Hall , 1997. ISBN 0-13-285974-2.**External links*** [

*http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/logic-ai/ Article on "Logic and Artificial Intelligence"*] at theStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy .

* [*http://www.informatik.hu-berlin.de/lics/ IEEE Symposium on Logic in Computer Science*] (LICS)

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