- Air pollution in British Columbia
Air pollutionis a concern in British Columbia(BC), Canadabecause of its effects on healthand visibility. Air quality is influenced in BC by numerous mountain ranges and valleys, which complicate atmospheric pollution dispersion and can lead to high concentrations of pollutants such as particulate matter from wood smoke (especially during stagnant atmospheric conditions/ inversions).
Air quality in BC
Air quality in much of BC is good compared to many areas of North America. This is particularly true for cities in BC such as the
Greater Vancouverarea and Victoria, British Columbia.Fact|date=June 2007 Valleycommunities (e.g. Golden) may experience periods of poor air quality, particularly during stagnant atmospheric conditions. Two communities currently exceed the federal air quality standards; Prince George for particulate matter (PM2.5) and the community of Hope (in the Lower Frase Valley) for ozone. Other communities are close to the PM2.5 standard, such as Quesnel and Kamloops. Communities close to exceeding the standard for ozone include Chiliwack, Langley, Kamloops and others.Fact|date=June 2007
Hourly air quality monitoring results are available for the Lower Fraser Valley [http://www.metrovancouver.org/services/air/monitoring/Pages/airqualityindex.aspx] . Air quality information is available for the rest of the province [http://www.env.gov.bc.ca:8000/pls/aqiis/air.summary] from the Ministry of the Environment
BC Lung Associationproduces an annual [http://www.bc.lung.ca/airquality/stateoftheair-report.html State of the Air Report] for BC. This report is a collaboration between the provincial, federal and regional governments responsible for air quality management in BC.
ources of air pollution
Sources of air pollution sources in British Columbia may be divided between those external to the province, such as transboundary pollution, and those internal to it; and between anthropogenic (man-made) sources and natural sources. External anthropogenic sources include
combustionparticles and gases from industrial sources in the province of Albertaor the U.S. state of Washington. Mount St. Helenshas been a significant external natural source: although located entirely in the United States, its eruption created air pollution in parts of British Columbia.
internal combustionengines (mainly automobiles and trucks, as well as marine vessels in coastal waters) is a major internal anthropogenic source. Other human-caused sources include: Industrial, agricultural (e.g. manure spreading), commercial operations (e.g., dry cleaners and gas stations) and home heating appliances (furnaces, fireplaces).
"Background pollution" occurs in areas not directly affected by pollution sources.
The Canadian Constitution does not clearly specify the level of government that has responsibility for environmental protection in Canada. As such, pollution law in British Columbia is divided among local, regional, provincial, federal and international
jurisdictions, each with its own focus and, at times, overlapping concerns. Legislationmay be enacted at any of these levels.
Provincial air quality law
Provincial environmental regulation is largely contained in BC's [http://www.qp.gov.bc.ca/statreg/stat/E/03053_00.htm Environmental Management Act] , which [http://www.qp.gov.bc.ca/statreg/stat/E/03053_01.htm#section001 defines] air pollution as follows:: "pollution" means the presence in the environment of substances or contaminants that substantially alter or impair the usefulness of the environment.
Federal air quality law
Federal pollution law is largely embodied in the [http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-15.31/ Canadian Environmental Protection Act] (CEPA) and its associated schedules. The act of scheduling a toxin under CEPA starts a [http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-15.31/29533.html#rid-29558 process] of elimination or virtual elimination from the Canadian environment.
The [http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/npri/npri_home_e.cfm National Pollutant Release Inventory] indexes sources by pollutant and location.
Pollution law governing emissions from marine vessels is complicated; Transport Canada holds primary authority for regulating ship traffic in Canada, while the International Maritime Organization governs global shipping rules (including pollution from marine vessels). Environment Canada and other agencies are working to better understand and address this issue, which is increasingly important due to growing international trade.
Regional and municipal air quality law
Within the province, various Regional Districts and municipalities have enacted laws to control pollution. There are also area-based plans to manage pollution along geographic lines that recognize
airsheds instead of political boundaries. This system is especially relevant to BC because of its mountainous topography. The BC Environmental Management Act recognizes airsheds and notes that managers under the Act "may give consideration" to them, but their full legal status is uncertain. Some plans have had a considerable effect, and this trend is likely to continue.
Greater Vancouver Regional District(GVRD) has a clearly defined role in air pollution control and has delegated authority from the province (Montreal is the only other jurisdiction in Canada with this delegated authority). The Fraser Valley Regional District has delegated authority to plan but not manage air quality.
British Columbia is a participant in the [http://www.ccme.ca Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment] (CCME), which includes processes for fine particulates and ground level ozone. Because BC generally has lower levels of pollution than the standards set by the Environmental Protection Act, the CI/KCAC ("Continuous Improvement" and "Keeping Clean Areas Clean") principles of the federal strategy is of special importance.
International law and treaties such as the
Kyoto Accordfurther affect air pollution in BC.
precautionary principleembodied in international agreements is gaining recognition in Canada and BC as a guide to interpreting pollution law.
Clean air advocacy
Air pollution is often an emotional subject, and one of considerable interest to public health organizations. Advocacy groups are listed here with links to more information.
* The [http://www.ecobc.org BC Environmental Network] is a coalition of over five hundred environmental organizations in BC, including many with an air quality focus.
* The [http://www.bc.lung.ca BC Lung Association] is one of the oldest and most influential clean air advocacy groups in BC.
* [http://www.cape.ca/ Canadian Association of Physicians for the Environment]
* [http://cleanairbc.tc.ca/smithers/smithers.html CHOKED] is an air quality advocacy group in [http://www.town.smithers.bc.ca Smithers] , a small town in northwestern BC. The group has participated in appeals before the province's Environmental Appeal Board of BC, notably in the case of [http://www.eab.gov.bc.ca/waste/1999was06d_08d_11d_13d_01d.pdf beehive burner pollution] .
* [http://cleanairbc.tc.ca/ Clean Air BC Coalition]
* Community members in and around Duncan, BC have expressed great concern around plans by [http://www.norskecanada.com/default.pasp Norske Canada] to burn car tires ( [http://www.p2pays.org/ref/11/10504/html/usa/tdf.htm tire derived fuel] ) to generate energy in their Crofton pulp mill. The [http://www.croftonair.org/ Crofton Airshed Citizen's Group] has been active in criticizing this proposal and are now planning an independent study of the expected impacts.
* [http://www.healtheffects.org/ Health Effects Institute]
* [http://www.rfu.org Reach For Unbleached] is an organization with a special interest in pulp mill pollution issues in BC. Of special interest is their publication, [http://www.watershedsentinel.ca/ The Watershed Sentinel] . Their [http://www.rfu.org/Campaigns.htm office paper buying club] uses consumer advocacy to bring about corporate environmental change. They also discuss their allegations that provincial monitoring [http://www.rfu.org/MonMiss.htm misses pulp mill wastes] .
* The [http://www.sierralegal.org Sierra Legal Defence Fund] is a non-profit law firm advocating for the environment. They advocate in several public interest areas, including air quality issues.
* The [http://www.spec.bc.ca Society Promoting Environmental Conservation] has long been involved in air pollution issues in BC.
* The [http://www.davidsuzuki.org/ David Suzuki Foundation] focuses on
climate changein its air quality work.
* [http://www.wcel.org West Coast Environmental Law] is another non-profit law firm with subject areas that include air quality litigation and briefs to the government. Their Environmental Dispute Resolution Fund is an important vehicle for activists.
(See "Clean air advocacy" above for additional links.)
** [http://www.ijc.org/rel/agree/air.html Air Quality Agreement] between Canada and the United States
** [http://laws.justice.gc.ca/en/C-15.31/ Canadian Environmental Protection Act]
** [http://www.ec.gc.ca/pdb/npri/npri_home_e.cfm National Pollutant Release Inventory]
** [http://www.ccme.ca/assets/pdf/scrvw_pm_fine_fraction_e.pdf Human Health Effects of Fine Particulate Matter] report (about 300 pages)
** [http://www.ccme.ca/ Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment]
** [http://www.gov.bc.ca/wlap/ BC Ministry of Water, Land and Air Protection]
** [http://www.qp.gov.bc.ca/statreg/list_statreg_e.htm Statues and Associated Regulations (E)] —see items beginning with "Environment", "Environmental"
*** [http://www.qp.gov.bc.ca/statreg/stat/E/03053_00.htm Environmental Management Act]
** [http://www.eab.gov.bc.ca/ Environmental Appeal Board of BC]
** [http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/air/particulates/pdfs/vedalrpt.pdf Air quality report commissioned by the province]
** [http://www.bvldamp.ca/ Bulkley Valley and Lakes District Airshed Management Plan]
** [http://www.gvrd.bc.ca/air/ Greater Vancouver Regional District air quality site]
** [http://wlapwww.gov.bc.ca/ske/skeair/ Skeena Region air quality site]
*Reports from other sources
** BC Lung Association's [http://www.bc.lung.ca/airquality/documents/StateoftheAir2007_ForWeb4.pdf 2007 State of the Air Report] (pdf)
** [http://www.bc.lung.ca/airquality.pdf Health and Air Quality 2002—Phase 1] report - a technical report examining the human health effects and related economic costs of air pollution in BC's Lower Fraser Valley (2003; 133 pages)
** [http://www.cape.ca/children/resp.html CAPE's information on children's respiratory health]
** [http://www.cen-rce.org/eng/consultations/archives/continuous_improvements_clean_areas.pdf CI/KCAC additional concepts]
** [http://cleanairbc.tc.ca/posts/2004/CIKCACdraft/ Draft proposal for the CI/KCAC strategy] (2004)
** [http://ehp.niehs.nih.gov/ Environmental Health Perspectives] (U.S. government publication)
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