Bit stream access

Bit stream access

Bit Stream Access refers to the situation where a wireline incumbent install a high speed access link to the customers premises (e.g., by installing ADSL equipment in the local access network) and then makes this access link available to third parties, to enable them to provide high speed services to customers. This type of access does not entail any third party access to the copper pair in the local loop.

The incumbent may also provide transmission services to its competitors, using its ATM or IP network, to carry competitors' traffic from the DSLAM to a higher level in the network hierarchy where new entrants may already have a point of presence (e.g. a transit switch location). Bit-stream handover points thus can be at various levels:
* Handover at DSLAM
* Handover at ATM-PoP
* Handover at IP level

Bit Stream Access is nowadays considered a key tool for opening competition in the broadband market. It enables competitors to offer their own products to consumers even if they do not operate the local loop (the last mile). Bit stream access allows the new entrant to use the high-speed modems and other equipment provided by the incumbent and thus avoid maintenance and investments into the local loop. This affects the economics of the service and places restrictions on the type of modems that the customer of the new entrant can buy or rent.

The main elements defining Bit Stream Access are the following:
* High speed access link to the customer premises (end user part) provided by the incumbent and transmission capacity for broadband data in both direction enabling new entrants to offer their own, value-added services to end users;
* New entrants have the possibility to differentiate their services by altering technical characteristics and/or the use of their own network;

Thus, Bit Stream Access is a wholesale product consisting of the access (typically ADSL) and “backhaul” services of the (data) backbone network (ATM, IP backbone).

E.U. Regulation

Unlike Local Loop Unbundling, the provision of Bit Stream Access services is not mandated under European Community law, but where an incumbent operator provides Bit Stream DSL services to its own services, subsidiary or third party, then, in accordance with Community law, it must also provide such forms of access under transparent and non-discriminatory terms or conditions to others (Directive 98/10/EC Article 16).

Note: Bit Stream Access service allows the incumbent to retain control of the rate of deployment of high speed access services, and the geographical regions in which these service are rolled out. From the regulatory point of view, such services are therefore seen as complementing the other forms of unbundled access, but not substituting them.

ee also

* Local Loop Unbundling

Wikimedia Foundation. 2010.

Поможем написать курсовую

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Stream cipher attack — Stream ciphers, where plaintext bits are combined with a cipher bit stream by an exclusive or operation (xor), can be very secure if used properly. However they are vulnerable to attack if certain precautions are not followed:*keys must never be… …   Wikipedia

  • Bit — This article is about the unit of information. For other uses, see Bit (disambiguation). Fundamental units of information bit (binary) nat (base e) ban (decimal) qubit (quantum) This box …   Wikipedia

  • Byte stream — In computer science, a byte stream is a bit stream, in which data bits are grouped into units, called bytes. In computer networking the term octet stream is sometimes used to refer to the same thing; it emphasizes the use of bytes having the… …   Wikipedia

  • MPEG transport stream — Filename extension .ts Internet media type video/MP2T[1] Developed by MPEG Initial release 1995 (1995) …   Wikipedia

  • Microsoft Data Access Components — MDAC redirects here. For other uses, see MDAC (disambiguation). MDAC (Microsoft Data Access Components) Microsoft Corporation s MDAC provides a uniform framework for accessing a variety of data sources on their Windows platform. Developer(s)… …   Wikipedia

  • Packet Switch Stream — In the UK, PSS, was an X.25 based packet switched network, provided by the British Post Office Telecommunications and then British Telecom from 1980, onwards. After a period of pre operational testing with customers (mainly UK Universities and… …   Wikipedia

  • Broadband Internet access — Broadband Internet access, often shortened to just broadband, is high speed Internet access typically contrasted with dial up access over a modem.Dial up modems are generally only capable of a maximum bitrate of 56 kbit/s (kilobits per second)… …   Wikipedia

  • Conditional access — (abbreviated CA) is the protection of content by requiring certain criteria to be met before granting access to this content. The term is commonly used in relation to digital television systems, most notably satellite television. Contents 1… …   Wikipedia

  • Time division multiple access — This article is about the channel access method. The name TDMA is also commonly used in the United States to refer to Digital AMPS, which is an obsolete mobile telephone standard that uses TDMA to control channel access. Time division multiple… …   Wikipedia

  • Generic Stream Encapsulation — Internet protocol suite Application layer BGP DHCP DNS FTP HTTP …   Wikipedia

Share the article and excerpts

Direct link
Do a right-click on the link above
and select “Copy Link”