Pseudomonas putida

Pseudomonas putida
Pseudomonas putida
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gamma Proteobacteria
Order: Pseudomonadales
Family: Pseudomonadaceae
Genus: Pseudomonas
Species: P. putida
Binomial name
Pseudomonas putida
Trevisan, 1889
Type strain
ATCC 12633

CCUG 12690
CFBP 2066
DSM 291
JCM 13063 and 20120
LMG 2257
NBRC 14164
NCAIM B.01634
NCCB 72006 and 68020
NCTC 10936


Bacillus fluorescens putidus" Flügge 1886
Bacillus putidus Trevisan 1889
Pseudomonas eisenbergii Migula 1900
Pseudomonas convexa Chester 1901
Pseudomonas incognita Chester 1901
Pseudomonas ovalis Chester 1901
Pseudomonas rugosa (Wright 1895) Chester 1901
Pseudomonas striata Chester 1901
Pseudomonas mildenbergii Bergey, et al.
Arthrobacter siderocapsulatus Dubinina and Zhdanov 1975
Pseudomonas arvilla O. Hayaishi
Pseudomonas barkeri Rhodes
Pseudomonas cyanogena Hammer

Pseudomonas putida is a gram-negative rod-shaped saprotrophic soil bacterium. Based on 16S rRNA analysis, P. putida has been placed in the P. putida group, to which it lends its name[1].

It is the first patented organism in the world. Because it is a living organism the patent was disputed and brought before the United States Supreme Court in the historic court case Diamond v. Chakrabarty which the inventor, Ananda M. Chakrabarty, won. It demonstrates a very diverse metabolism, including the ability to degrade organic solvents such as toluene.[2] This ability has been put to use in bioremediation, or the use of microorganisms to biodegrade oil. Use of P. putida is preferable to some other Pseudomonas species capable of such degradation as it is a safe species of bacteria, unlike P. aeruginosa for example, which is an opportunistic human pathogen.




The diverse metabolism of P. putida may be exploited for bioremediation; for example, it is used as a soil inoculant to remedy naphthalene contaminated soils[3].

P. putida is capable of converting styrene oil into the biodegradable plastic PHA[4][5]. This may be of use in the effective recycling of Polystyrene foam, otherwise thought to be non-biodegradable.


P. putida has demonstrated potential biocontrol properties, as an effective antagonist of damping off diseases such as Pythium[6] and Fusarium[7].

Oligonucleotide Usage Signatures of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 Genome

Di- to pentanucleotide usage and the list of the most abundant octa- to tetradecanucleotides are useful measures of the bacterial genomic signature. The Pseudomonas putida KT2440 chromosome is characterized by strand symmetry and intra-strand parity of complementary oligonucleotides. Each tetranucleotide occurs with similar frequency on the two strands. Tetranucleotide usage is biased by G+C content and physicochemical constraints such as base stacking energy, dinucleotide propeller twist angle or trinucleotide bendability. The 105 regions with atypical oligonucleotide composition can be differentiated by their patterns of oligonucleotide usage into categories of horizontally acquired gene islands, multidomain genes or ancient regions such as genes for ribosomal proteins and RNAs. A species-specific extragenic palindromic sequence is the most common repeat in the genome that can be exploited for the typing of P. putida strains. In the coding sequence of P. putida LLL is the most abundant tripeptide.[8]

Organic Synthesis

Certain variants of P. putida have been used in organic synthesis, the first example being the oxidation of benzene, employed by Prof. S. V. Ley in the synthesis of the cyclitol (+/-)pinitol.[9]

CBB5 and caffeine consumption

Pseudomonas putida CBB5 can live on pure caffeine, and has been observed to break caffeine down into carbon dioxide and ammonia.[10]


  1. ^ Anzai, et al.; Kim, H; Park, JY; Wakabayashi, H; Oyaizu, H (2000, Jul). "Phylogenetic affiliation of the pseudomonads based on 16S rRNA sequence". Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 50 (Pt 4): 1563–89. doi:10.1099/00207713-50-4-1563. PMID 10939664. 
  2. ^ Marques S, Ramos JL. (1993) Transcriptional control of the Pseudomonas putida TOL plasmid catabolic pathways. Molecular Microbiology 9(5):923-9. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2958.1993.tb01222.x PMID 7934920
  3. ^ Newton C.M. Gomes, Irina A. Kosheleva, Wolf-Rainer Abraham, Kornelia Smalla (2005) Effects of the inoculant strain Pseudomonas putida KT2442 (pNF142) and of naphthalene contamination on the soil bacterial community. FEMS Microbiology Ecology 54 (1), 21–33.
  4. ^ Immortal Polystyrene Foam Meets its Enemy | LiveScience
  5. ^ Ward PG, Goff M, Donner M, Kaminsky W, O'Connor KE. (2006) A two step chemo-biotechnological conversion of polystyrene to a biodegradable thermoplastic. Environmental Science and Technology 40(7):2433-7. PMID 16649270
  6. ^ Amer GA, Utkhede RS. (2000) Development of formulations of biological agents for management of root rot of lettuce and cucumber. Can J Microbiol. 46(9):809-16. PMID 11006841
  7. ^ Validov S, Kamilova F, Qi S, Stephan D, Wang JJ, Makarova N, Lugtenberg B. (2007) Selection of bacteria able to control Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. radicis-lycopersici in stonewool substrate. J Appl Microbiol. 102(2):461-71. PMID 17241352
  8. ^ Cornelis P (editor). (2008). Pseudomonas: Genomics and Molecular Biology (1st ed.). Caister Academic Press. ISBN 1904455190. ISBN 978-1-904455-19-6 . 
  9. ^ Microbial oxidation in synthesis: A six step perparation of (+/-)-pinitol from benzene, S. V. Ley et al., Tetrahedron Lett. Volume 28, 1987, Pages 225 doi:10.1016/S0040-4039(00)95692-2
  10. ^ [1]

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