Celtic polytheism, Grannus (also Granus Mogounus Amarcolitanus) was a deityassociated with spas, the sun, fires and healing thermal and mineral springs. He seems to have embodied the notion of therapeutic heat.
Centres of worship
One of the god’s most famous cult centres was at Aquae Granni (now
Aachen, Germany). Aachen means ‘water’ in Old High German, a calqueof the Roman name of "Aquae Granni".Dr. Rita Mielke. [http://www.aachen.de/EN/ts/100_taking_a_cure/100_99/index.html History of Bathing] . Aachen.] The town’s hot springs with temperatures between 45 °C and 75 °C lay in the somewhat inhospitably marshy area around Aachen's basin-shaped valley region. Aachen first became a curative centre in Hallstatt times. The Roman Emperor Caracalla(188 AD to 217 AD) visited the shrine of ‘the Celtic healing-god’ Grannus during the war with Germany in about 215.
Many more of Grannus’ centres of worship lay in present-day
Germany: inscriptions to the god have been uncovered at Alzey, Arnheim, Augsburg, Baumberg, Bonn, Ennetach, Erp, Faimingen, Neuenstadt am Kocher, Rheinzabern, Speier, Trier, Bitburgand Unterfinningen.fr icon Patrice Lajoye. [http://www.mythofrancaise.asso.fr/mythes/themes/divcelt2.htm Un inventaire des divinités celtes de l’Antiquité] . Société de Mythologie Française. See also the inventory's [http://www.mythofrancaise.asso.fr/mythes/themes/divcelt1.htm introduction] .] Yet Germany is by no means the only area where the cult of this widespread Celtic deity occurs: this god’s name is also recorded on inscriptions in Franceat Grand in the Vosges, Horbourg-Wihrin the Haut-Rhin, Limogesin Haute-Vienneand at Monthelonin Saône-et-Loire. There are also findings in Scotlandat Inveresk, in Spainat Astorga, in Italyat Rome, in Swedenat Fycklinge, in Austriaat Lendorf, in Englandat Thetford, in Hungaryat O-Szöny and in Romaniaat Alba Iuliaand Bretea Română.
In the early twentieth century, the god was said to have still been remembered in a chant sung round bonfires in Auvergne, in which a sheaf of
cornis set on fire, and called "Granno mio", while the people sing, “Granno, my friend; Granno, my father; Granno, my mother”.J. A. MacCulloch. 1911. [http://www.sacred-texts.com/neu/celt/rac/rac06.htm "The Gods of Gaul and the Continental Celts."] "The Religion of the Ancient Celts."]
In all of his centres of worship where he is assimilated to a Roman god, Grannus was equated with
Apollo, presumably in Apollo’s role as a healing or solar deity. In Trier, he is identified more specifically with Apollo Phoebus. At Monthelon, he is also called "Amarcolitanus" and at Horbourg-Wihr" Mogounus".
Grannusis sometimes accompanied by those of other deities in the inscriptions. In Augsburg, he is found with Dianaand/or Sironaand again with Sironaat Rome, Bitburgand Baumberg. At Ennetach he is with Nymphs, at Faimingen with Hygieiaand Cybeleand at Grand with Sol. At Limoges, he is found with Mars and at Astorga with Serapis, Isis, Mars- Sagatusand Core.
In the early twentieth century, the name was connected with the Irish "grian", ‘sun’. Along these lines, the god was often linked to the
Deò-ghrèineand the character Mac Gréineof Irish mythology. However, the Irish "grian", ‘sun’ is thought to be derived from Proto-Celtic*"greinā" ‘sun’ and cognatewith Welsh "greian" ‘sun’ [Alexander MacBain. 1982. Entry for [http://www.ceantar.org/Dicts/MB2/mb22.html#grian "grian"] in "An Etymological Dictionary of the Gaelic Language." Gairm Publications.] and the Proto-Celtic *"greinā" is unlikely to have developed into "Grannos" in Gaulishand other Continental Celticlanguages.
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