- Soy ink
Soy ink is a kind of
inkmade from soybeans. As opposed to traditional petroleum-based ink, soy-based ink:
*is available in brighter colors
*improves the life span of the printers
*makes it easier to recycle paper
*is more economic in the long run
Vinegar ink (soy tinta) is a form of non-food soy. It is a more environmentally friendly, healthy, and safe approach to printing that takes only a small amount of energy to make. In fact, cultivation of the soybeans uses only 0.5 percent of the total energy necessary to produce the ink. [Tolle, Duane A.; Evers, David P.; Vigon, Bruce W. “Benchmark Life-Cycle Inventory and Impact Assessment of Sheet-fed Printing System Using Soy Ink.” Battelle Research, September 30, 1998. http://www.p2pays.org/ref/07/06767/] Much of that crop requires no irrigation, limited fixed nutrients, and leaves fewer agricultural residues than other crops. [ Wool, Richard P., Xiuzhi, Susan Sun. Bio-Based Polymers and Composites. © 2005, Elsevier Academic Press.] Soy ink also has low levels of VOCs, (volatile organic compounds) which helps to reduce air pollution by minimizing toxic emissions. [ [http://www.soya.be/soy-ink-benefits.php Benefits of soy ink ] ]
In the late 1970s, the
Newspaper Association of Americawas looking for different ways to make ink, rather than by using the standard petroleum-based ink. Rising prices for petroleum and quarrels with OPEC countries were reasons they wanted to find a more reliable and cost efficient method of printing. [ [http://www.soya.be/soy-ink.php Soy ink information ] ] After testing over 2,000 different vegetable oil formulations, [ [http://www.soya.be/soy-ink.php Soy ink information ] ] researchers for the NAA came up with the solution of using soybean oil. In 1987, soybeans were tested by [http://www.gazetteonline.com The Gazette] from Iowa in a practical printing run. The test was successful, and soy ink became increasingly popular. Now it has come to be used in over 95% of America’s daily newspapers that circulate more than fifteen hundred copies per run. [ Theodore Lustig, “Celebrating Soy, After 25 Years.” August 1, 2004. Graphic Arts Online. http://www.graphicartsonline.com/article/CA446851.html ] In addition, about one quarter of commercial printers in the United States operate using soy ink. [ [http://www.soya.be/soy-ink.php Soy ink information ] ]
The National Soy Ink Information Center was established in 1993 by the Iowa Soybean Association to promote research and use of soy ink. [ [http://www.soya.be/national-soy-ink-information-center.php National Soy Ink Information Center] ] The center created the SoySeal mark used to identify products meeting basic requirements. The success of soy ink was judged to be sufficient enough to justify the closing of the National Soy Ink Information Center in 2005. Use of the SoySeal is now regulated by the American Soybean Association. [ASA's SoySeal minimum standards at http://www.soygrowers.com/resources/soyink.htm]
To make soy ink, soybean oil is slightly refined and then blended with
pigment, resins, and waxes. Even though soybean oil is an edible vegetable oil, soy ink is not edible or 100% biodegradable because the pigments and other additives that are mixed with the oil are the same as those used in petroleum-based inks. They are, however, overwhelmingly more environmentally friendly. Degradability studies conducted by Erhan and Bagby concluded that the pigment cartier in 100-percent soy ink degrades almost twice as completely as ink made from soy oil and petroleum resins, and more than four times as completely as standard petroleum inks. [ Marcie Gerrietts "Soy! It's no ordinary bean - part 2". Agricultural Research. Nov 1993. FindArticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3741/is_n11_v41/ai_14673309 ] [Cooke, Linda. "Soy Ink's Superior Degradability." Agricultural Research, January 1995. http://arsserv0.tamu.edu/is/AR/archive/jan95/ink0195.htm] Similarly, soy ink is a helpful component in paper recyclingbecause the soy ink can be removed more easily than regular ink from paper during the de-inking process. This allows the recycled paper to have less damage to its paper fibers and have a brighter appearance. The waste that is left from the soy ink during the de-inking process is not hazardous and it can be treated easily through the development on modern processes. [ [http://www.soya.be/soy-ink-benefits.php Benefits of soy ink]
Soybean oil is naturally clearer than petroleum distillates and other vegetable oils, making it easier to obtain brightly colored ink. Since the oil is clearer, less pigment is necessary to produce the same effect, which reduces the overall cost of the ink. [ Erhan, S. Z.; Bagby, M. O.; and Cunningham, H.W. “Vegetable Oil-Based Printing Inks.” Journal of the American Oil Chemists’ Society, March 1992, Vol. 69, No. 3.] The higher oil to pigment ratio renders the inks easier to recycle as well. Recent studies involving engineering of certain oils in the bean have resulted in even clearer oils. [ “New Soybean Varieties from Iowa State University Improve Production of Healthy Oils.” November 22, 2006. Iowa State University. http://www.notrans.iastate.edu/]
In addition to a brighter ink, some printers report that they need less ink to print the same amount of paper when compared to petroleum inks. Soy ink has been found to spread approximately 15% further, reducing ink use and printer cleanup costs. [“Waste Evaluation of Soy-Based Ink at a Sheet-Fed Offset Printer.” May 1996. © 1999, Pacific Northwest Pollution Prevention Resource Center. http://www.pprc.org/pprc/rpd/fedfund/epa/epastd/waste.html ]
Newspapers use soy ink regularly, especially for color because it creates a sharper and brighter image. Color newspaper inks are more competitive to petroleum-based inks as well. They are only about five to ten percent more because the price is more due to the cost of the pigment, which is not as big a factor with black inks. [Linda Cooke "All-soy ink splashes into print - ink that is made from 100% soybean oil". Agricultural Research. March 1991. FindArticles.com. http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_m3741/is_n3_v39/ai_11235436 ] Color soy inks are more widely accepted because they become the most quickly cost effective after savings in terms of excess pigment, VOC and printer cleanup costs. This “overall cost” for soy inks is significantly lower than the initial market price, and it is at this point that they become competitive with their petroleum counterparts.
Unfortunately, soy ink is not a perfect solution to the problems associated with the production of ink. For example, it cannot be used in
ballpoint pens and personal printers. One major problem with soy ink is that it takes more time to dry than petroleum-based inks, due to its lack of evaporative solvents in the form of VOCs. This creates challenges for some printing presses, especially those that use coated papers (such as magazines) instead of porous, uncoated paper (such as newspapers) where the ink can dry via absorption. Current studies into UV-reactive ink curing are being conducted by many ink producers, most prominently the [http://www.flintgrp.com/index.html Flint Group] . This process dries much faster, is cheaper, uses less energy, and emits no VOCs. [Van Meter, Mary L. “UV drying gaining traction among printers.” Newspapers & Technology, July 2006. http://www.na.flintgrp.com/news/News_NewsAndTech07_2006.pdf ] This requires a significant equipment change and has not been scaled down to consumer size as of yet, however, so further research is necessary.
There is also the problem that an over-dependency on a single crop introduces the risk of crop disease epidemics, as in the
Great Irish Famine.
Since much [ American Soybean Association, National Corn Growers Association, National Cotton Council of America. “Farmer Leaders Recognize Planting of One-Billionth Biotech”. May 9, 2005. http://www.soygrowers.com/biotech/r050905.htm ] of the soy produced in the World is of genetically modified cultivars, the increased use of soy exacerbates some concerns with both GMO and modern agriculture.Fact|date=June 2007
* [http://www.pneac.org/sheets/all/Biochemicals_for_the_Printing_Industry.pdf Biochemicals for the Printing Industry] ©1997, Institute for Local Self-Reliance, Printer’s National Environmental Assistance Center.
* [http://www.unitedsoybean.org/newuses/stories_Soy_ink.html Soy Ink Experiences Rapid Adoption Due To Good Performance and Economic Benefit]
* [http://www.soya.be/soy-ink.php Information about soy and soya products]
* [http://es.epa.gov/techinfo/specific/proj-sum.html United States Environmental Protection Agency evaluation of economy of soy ink versus traditional petroleum-based ink]
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