- National Merit Scholarship Program
The National Merit Scholarship Program is a United States academic scholarship competition for recognition and college scholarships administered by National Merit Scholarship Corporation (NMSC), a privately funded, not-for-profit organization. The program began in 1955. NMSC conducts two annual competitions for recognition and scholarships: the National Merit Scholarship Program, which is open to all students who meet entry requirements, and the National Achievement Scholarship Program in which only African American students participate. Each year a total of approximately 10,500 scholarships are awarded through NMSC programs. The corporation's headquarters are located in Evanston, Illinois.
Of the 1.5 million entrants, about 50,000 qualify for recognition. More than two-thirds of those qualified receive Letters of Commendation; about a third of the 50,000 become Semifinalists, about 94% of whom go on to become Finalists. Over half of the Finalists are selected to receive scholarships underwritten by corporations and business organizations, colleges and universities, and by NMSC with its own funds.
Program entry requirements
To enter the competition, a student must
- be enrolled full time as a high school student progressing normally toward completion of high school and planning to enroll full time in college in the fall following the completion of high school;
- be a citizen of the United States or be a U.S. lawful permanent resident who intends to become a U.S. citizen at the earliest opportunity allowed by law, or have applied for permanent residency with the intention of becoming a U.S. citizen at the earliest possible opportunity and have not been denied; and
- take the Preliminary SAT/National Merit Scholarship Qualifying Test (PSAT/NMSQT) in the specified year of the high school program, usually the junior (11th grade) year and usually at one's own school. Students completing high school in three (3) years or less must be in the last or next-to-last year of high school when they take the test. Students unable to take the exam because of an extenuating circumstance, such as severe illness or natural disaster, may be permitted to substitute subsequent SAT results by making arrangements with NMSC no later than March 1 following the exam that was missed.
Steps in the competition
The NMSC uses the PSAT/NMSQT as the initial screen of over 1.5 million program entrants. In the spring of the junior year, NMSC determines a national Selection Index qualifying score (critical reading + math + writing skills scores) for "Commended" recognition, which is calculated each year to yield students at about the 96th percentile(top 50,000 highest scorers). Scores in the 200's and above (out of 240) often qualify for recognition, but qualifying levels change annually depending on how the top approximately 50,000 high scorers fared. Qualification levels also vary by state, and qualifying levels are higher in competitive states such as California and New York. For the 2009/2010 school year, a score of 217 was required in California to qualify. Notification is mailed to school principals in April regarding students who scored at or above this level. The principals then notify their students of their status. These students are given the opportunity to identify two colleges or universities to which they would like NMSC to send their scores.
Early the next September (beginning of the senior year, almost a year after the PSAT/NMSQT was taken), NMSC determines Selection Index qualifying scores for further recognition by state (including three other areas: DC, US Territories and Commonwealths, and students enrolled in schools outside the US) and US boarding schools (by geographic region). About 16,000 of the 50,000 are recognized as National Merit Semifinalists in this process. The Selection Index qualifying scores for Semifinalist standing vary from state to state and from year to year. Each state is allocated a percentage of Semifinalists based on the percentage of that state's graduating seniors out of the nation's total. The National Merit Scholarship Corporation does not release to the public the minimum qualifying score required per state. In August after the PSAT was taken, high school principals are mailed notification about their Semifinalists. Principals communicate these results to their students, though some misread the NMSC materials and do not release them until the NMSC press release, which comes in mid-September. Those not making Semifinalist are "Commended", and receive a Letter of Commendation; they do not continue in the competition for Merit Scholarship awards.
Semifinalists must fulfill additional requirements and advance to the Finalist level of the competition to be considered for a scholarship. Approximately 15,000 of the 16,000 Semifinalists advance to Finalist standing by submitting SAT scores that confirm the earlier PSAT/NMSQT performance, having an outstanding academic record, and being endorsed and recommended by a high school official. They must also submit an application that includes high school courses and grades, extracurricular and volunteer activities, and a self-descriptive essay. The information that is collected about each Semifinalist is used later in the process to choose scholarship winners. All Finalists receive a Certificate of Merit in recognition of their outstanding performance in the competition.
Of the 15,000 Finalists, about 8,200 receive Merit Scholarship awards. All Finalists are considered for one of the 2,500 National Merit $2,500 Scholarships, which are awarded on a state representational basis. NMSC's own funds support the majority of these awards but corporate sponsors help underwrite these awards with grants they provide to NMSC in lieu of paying administrative fees. About 1,100 Merit Scholarship awards are provided by corporate sponsors for Finalists who meet criteria specified by the sponsor. Most of these awards are for children of the sponsor's employees, for Finalists living in a particular geographic area, or for Finalists who have career plans the sponsor wishes to encourage. These two types of awards can be used at any regionally accredited college or university in the United States. There are also approximately 4,600 college-sponsored Merit Scholarship awards for Finalists who plan to attend a sponsor college. Finalists report to NMSC their first choice college (College-Sponsored Merit Awards). In addition, about 1,500 program participants who are below the Finalist level receive Special Scholarships provided by corporate sponsors.
Before receiving an award, a Finalist must (a) notify NMSC of plans to enroll in a college or university in the United States that holds accredited status with a regional accrediting commission on higher education, and (b) plan to enroll full time in an undergraduate course of study leading to a traditional baccalaureate degree. NMSC scholarship stipends are not payable for attendance at service academies, virtual universities, and certain institutions that are limited in their purposes or training. A number of National Merit Scholars do not receive a monetary award because their educational plans or other awards preclude receipt of a monetary scholarship; however, these students may be honored as Honorary Merit Scholars, a designation that acknowledges achievement without providing any financial assistance.
National Achievement Scholarship Program
Black American students who meet entry requirements and request consideration when they take the PSAT/NMSQT can enter the National Achievement Scholarship Program as well as the National Merit Program. The two programs are conducted concurrently; however, a student's standing in each program is determined independently. Black students can qualify for recognition, become candidates for awards, and be honored as Scholars in both competitions, but they can receive only one monetary award from NMSC. Students who are chosen as both National Achievement and National Merit Scholars receive the monetary award that is most advantageous to them and are recognized as Honorary Scholars in the other program.
Steps in the Achievement Scholarship competition are parallel to those in the National Merit Scholarship Program. Of 160,000 entrants, some 3,000 students are referred to colleges for their academic potential and an additional 1,600 students are designated Semifinalists on a regional representation basis. Semifinalists are the highest scorers in the states that make up each region and have an opportunity to continue in the competition for scholarships.
Around 1,300 Semifinalists go on to be named Finalists and about 800 receive scholarships. These include 700 National Achievement $2500 Scholarships, most of which are provided by the National Merit Scholarship Corporation, and about 100 corporate-sponsored Achievement Scholarships awards.
Famous National Merit Scholars
- Ben Bernanke (1971)
- Jeff Bezos (1982)
- Elvin Bishop (1960)
- Thomas Cech (1966)
- Jim Cramer (1973)
- Mitch Daniels (1967)
- Felicia Day (1995)
- B. Alvin Drew (1980)
- Howard Steven Friedman (1988)
- Bill Gates (1973)
- Jerry Greenfield (1969)
- Evelynn M. Hammonds (1971)
- Melissa Harris-Perry (1991)
- Lisa P. Jackson (1979)
- Mae Jemison (1973)
- Elena Kagan (1977)
- Paul Krugman (1970)
- Amory Lovins (1964)
- Michael McCullers (1989)
- Stephenie Meyer (1992)
- Lisa Randall (1980)
- Robert Reich (1964)
- Susan Rice (1982)
- John Roberts (1973)
- Linda Rottenberg (1986)
- Jeri Ryan (1986)
- Jeffrey Sachs (1972)
- M. Night Shyamalan (1988)
- Elliott Smith (1987) 
- Joseph Stiglitz (1960)
- Roger Tsien (1968)
Under the umbrella of their professional organization, the National Association for College Admission Counseling (NACAC), college and university admissions officers have strongly criticized the National Merit Scholarship Corporation's use of only one measure—the PSAT/NMSQT—to pre-screen students for National Merit recognition.
- Canada Millennium Scholarship Foundation (Canadian equivalent)
- Studienstiftung des deutschen Volkes (German National Academic Foundation)
- ^ "NMSC Corporate Brochure" (pdf). http://www.nationalmerit.org/corporate_sponsor.pdf. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- ^ "2009 Student Guide" (pdf). http://www.nationalmerit.org/student_guide.pdf. Retrieved October 19, 2009.
- ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac "National Merit Scholarship Corporation - Scholars You May Know". National Merit Scholarship Corporation. http://www.nationalmerit.org/scholars_you_may_know.php. Retrieved March 9, 2010.
- ^ http://www.startrek.com/database_article/ryan-jeri
- ^ http://www.blender.com/guide/67340/long-slow-death-elliott-smith.html
- ^ "Report of the Commission on the Use of Standardized Tests in Undergraduate Admission". National Association for College Admission Counseling. http://www.nacacnet.org/PublicationsResources/Marketplace/research/Pages/TestingCommissionReport.aspx. Retrieved May 12, 2009.
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