Languedoc (IPA| [lɑ̃gdɔk] in French, "Lengadòc" IPA| [ˌleŋgɔˈðɔ(k)] in
Occitan) is a former province of France, now continued in the modern-day "régions" of Languedoc-Roussillonand Midi-Pyrénéesin the south of France, and whose capital city was Toulouse, now in Midi-Pyrénées. It had an area of approximately 42,700 km² (16,490 sq. miles).
Languedoc should not be confused with the linguistic and cultural area of
Occitania, to which it belongs, but which is larger than Languedoc.
The question of the limits of Languedoc
The traditional provinces of the kingdom of France had no official existence. A province was a territory set up by tradition and customs, and which people regarded as a unit, but provinces had no political organization. Therefore their territory had no strict limits as we think today of administrative units, and their number varied depending on the point of view of the geographers. Today, when people refer to the old provinces of France, they actually refer to the "gouvernements" as they existed in 1789. "Gouvernements" were military regions established in the middle of the 16th century and whose territories matched those of the traditional provinces. However, in some cases, small provinces had been merged with a large one into a single "gouvernement", so "gouvernements" are not exactly the same as the traditional provinces.
The limits of Languedoc vary depending on what is considered. Historically, the region was called the county of Toulouse, a county independent from the kings of France. The county of Toulouse was made up of what would later be called Languedoc, but it also included the province of
Quercy(now "département" of Lot and northern half of the "département" of Tarn-et-Garonne) and the province of Rouergue(now "département" of Aveyron), both to the northwest of Languedoc. At some times it even included the province of Agenais(now eastern half of the "département" of Lot-et-Garonne) to the west of Languedoc, the province of Gévaudan(now "département" of Lozère), the province of Velay(now the central and eastern part of the "département" of Haute-Loire), the southern part of the province of Vivarais(now the southern part of the "département" of Ardèche), and even all the northern half of Provence. After the French conquest the entire county was dismantled, the central part of it being now called Languedoc.
The "gouvernement" of Languedoc which was created in the middle of the 16th century was made up of Languedoc proper, but also included the three small provinces of
Gévaudan, Velay, and Vivarais(in its entirety), these three provinces being to the northeast of Languedoc. Some people also consider that the region around Albiwas a traditional province, called Albigeois(now "département" of Tarn), although it is most often considered as being part of Languedoc proper. The provinces of Quercyand Rouergue, despite their old ties with Toulouse, were not incorporated into the "gouvernement" of Languedoc, instead being attached to the "gouvernement" of Guienneand its far-away capital Bordeaux. Probably this was made consciously to avoid reviving the independently-spirited county of Toulouse, potentially dangerous to France's unity. In the rest of the article, what is called Languedoc refers to the territory of the "gouvernement" of Languedoc, as described here, which is what most people refer to when they talk about the province of Languedoc, even though it is actually larger than strictly-speaking Languedoc proper.
Area and location of Languedoc
The province of Languedoc covered an area of approximately 42,700 km² (16,490 sq. miles) in the central part of southern
France, roughly the region between the Rhône River (border with Provence) and the Garonne River(border with Gascony), extending northwards to the Cévennesand the Massif Central(border with Auvergne).
Old administrative structures and the question of the capital city of Languedoc
The governors of Languedoc resided in
Pézenas, on the Mediterranean coast, away from Toulousebut close to Montpellier. In time they had increased their power well beyond military matters, and had become the real administrators and executive power of the province, a trend seen in the other "gouvernements" of France, but particularly acute in Languedoc, where the duke of Montmorency, governor of Languedoc, even openly rebelled against the king, then was defeated and beheaded in Toulouse in 1632by the order of Richelieu. The kings of France became fearful of the power of the governors, so after King Louis XIV (the Sun King) they had to reside in Versaillesand were forbidden to enter the territory of their "gouvernement". Thus the "gouvernements" became hollow structures, but they still carried a sense of the old provinces, and so their names and limits have remained popular until today.
For administrative purposes, Languedoc was divided in two "
généralités", the "généralité" of Toulouse and the "généralité" of Montpellier, the combined territory of the two generalities exactly matching that of the "gouvernement" of Languedoc. At the head of a generality was an " intendant", but in the case of Languedoc there was only one "intendant" responsible for both generalities, and he was often referred to as the "intendant" of Languedoc, even though technically speaking he was in fact the "intendant" of the generality of Toulouse and "intendant" of the generality of Montpellier. The generality of Toulouse is also referred to as Upper Languedoc ("Haut-Languedoc"), while the generality of Montpellier, down to the level of the sea, is referred to as Lower Languedoc ("Bas-Languedoc"). The "intendants" of Languedoc resided in Montpellier, and they had a sub-delegate in Toulouse. Montpellier was chosen on purpose to diminish the power of Toulouse, whose " parlement" was very influential, and which symbolized the old spirit of independence of the county of Toulouse. The "intendants" replaced the governors as administrators of Languedoc, but appointed and dismissed at will by the king, they were no threat to the central state in Versailles. By 1789 they were the most important element of the local administration of the kingdom.
For judicial and legislative matters, Languedoc was overseen by the "
Parlement" of Toulouse, founded in the middle of the 15th century. It was the first "parlement" created outside of Parisby the kings of France in order to be the equivalent of the "Parlement" of Paris in the far-away southern territories of the kingdom. The jurisdiction of the "Parlement" of Toulouse included the whole of the territory of the "gouvernement" of Languedoc, but it also included the province of Rouergue, most of the province of Quercy, and a part of Gascony. The "Parlement" of Toulouse was the supreme court of justice for this vast area of France, the court of last resort whose rulings could not be appealed, not even to the "Parlement" of Paris. The "Parlement" of Toulouse could also create case law through its decisions, as well as interpret the law. It was also in charge of registering new royal edicts and laws, and could decide to block them if it found them to be in contravention with the liberties and laws of Languedoc.
Finally, for purposes of taxation, Languedoc was ruled by the States of Languedoc, whose jurisdiction included only Languedoc proper (and
Albigeois), but not Gévaudan, Velay, and Vivarais, which kept each their own provincial states until 1789. Languedoc proper was one of the very few provinces of France which had the privilege to decide over tax maters, the kings of France having suppressed the provincial states in most other provinces of the kingdom. This was a special favor from the kings to ensure that an independently-spirited region far-away from Versailleswould remain faithful to the central state. The States of Languedoc met in many different cities, and for some time they established themselves in Pézenas, but in the 18th century they were relocated definitively to Montpellier, where they met once a year, until 1789.
For religious purposes, Languedoc was also divided into a certain number of ecclesiastical provinces, which had great importance at the time, but are less relevant to this article.
Resulting from this intricate entanglement of administrations and jurisdictions so typical of France before the
French Revolution, it is hard to say which city was the capital city of Languedoc. Toulouseand Montpellierboth often claim to be the capital of Languedoc. As a matter of fact, in the 18th century the monarchy clearly favored Montpellier, a city much smaller than Toulouse, and with less history and memories attached to it than the ancient metropolis of Toulouse, of which the kings of France were always fearful. However, most people consider that Toulouse is the real capital city of the province of Languedoc, due to its old status as center of the county of Toulouse, and due to the mighty power of its "parlement". On maps (both ancient and modern) showing the provinces of France in 1789 (in fact the "gouvernements" as was explained above), Toulouse is always marked as the capital city of Languedoc.
Modern administrative divisions
The province of Languedoc has been divided between four modern-day "régions":
*55.5% of its former territory lies in the
Languedoc-Roussillon"région", capital city Montpellier, covering the "département"s of Gard, Hérault, Aude, Lozère, and the extreme-north of Pyrénées-Orientales, which account for 86.5% of the territory of Languedoc-Roussillon. The remaining 13.5% is Roussillon(Pyrénées-Orientales), a province which was never part of Languedoc historically.
*24.8% of its former territory lies in the
Midi-Pyrénées"région", capital city Toulouse, covering the "département" of Tarn, as well as the eastern half of Haute-Garonne, the southeast of Tarn-et-Garonne, and the northwest and northheast of Ariège, which account for 23.4% of the territory of Midi-Pyrénées. The remaining 76.6% is made of Quercyand Rouergue(of which was talked above), as well as the province of County of Foix(which had been a vassal of the county of Toulouse in the Middle Ages), several small provinces of the Pyrénéesmountains, and a large part of Gascony.
*13% lies in the
Rhône-Alpes"région", covering the "département" of Ardèche, which accounts for 12.7% of the territory of Rhône-Alpes
*6.7% lies in the Auvergne "région",, covering the central and eastern part of the "département" of
Haute-Loire, which account for 11% of the territory of modern-day Auvergne "région"
Population and cities
On the traditional territory of the province of Languedoc there live approximately 3,650,000 people (as of 1999 census), 52% of these in the
Languedoc-Roussillon"région", 35% in the Midi-Pyrénées"région", 8% in the Rhône-Alpes"région", and 5% in the Auvergne "région".
The territory of the former province shows a stark contrast between some densely populated areas (coastal plains as well as metropolitan area of Toulouse in the interior) where density is between 150 inhabitants per km²/390 inh. per sq. mile (coastal plains) and 300 inh. per km²/780 inh. per sq. mile (plain of Toulouse), and the hilly and mountainous interior where density is extremely low, the
Cévennesarea in the south of Lozèrehaving one of the lowest densities of Europewith only 7.4 inhabitants per km² (19 inh. per sq. mile).
The five largest metropolitan areas on the territory of the former province of Languedoc are (as of 1999 census):
Toulouse(964,797), Montpellier(459,916), Nîmes(221,455), Béziers(124,967), and Alès(89,390).
The population of the former province of Languedoc is currently the fastest-growing in
France, and also among the fastest-growing in Europe, as an increasing flow of people from northern France and the north of Europe relocating to the sunbelt of Europe, in which Languedoc is located. Growth is particularly strong in the metropolitan areas of Toulouseand Montpellier, which are the two fastest growing metropolitan areas in Europe at the moment. However, the interior of Languedoc is still losing inhabitants, which increases the difference of density that was mentioned.
Population of the coast of Languedoc as well as the region of Toulouse is rather young, educated, and affluent, whereas in the interior the population tends to be much older, with significantly lower incomes, and with a lower percentage of high school and especially college graduates.
Languedoc is a significant producer of
wine, historically of indifferent quality, and a major contributor to the surplus known as the " wine lake". Today it produces more than a third of the grapes in France, and is a focus for outside investors. Wines from the Mediterranean coast of Languedoc are labeled as Languedoc, those from the interior have other labels such as Fronton, Gaillac, or Limoux to the west - and Côtes du Rhônetowards east.
Other crops include
wheat(the traditional crop which made the fortune of the landlords and parliamentarians based in Toulouse, and for whose trade the famous Canal du Midiwas built), maize(the new and nowadays most popular crop in the region), olives (only on the Mediterranean coast of Languedoc), fruit, and rice(in some coastal areas). In the hilly and mountainous areas of the interior, sheepand goatare raised for meat and cheese. The coastal area is, naturally, a source of fishand shellfish.
Airbus, EADS, CNES, etc.), electronics ( Motorola, etc.), and bio-tech industries in Toulouse; high-tech, electronics, and computer ( IBM) industries in Montpellier; pharmaceutical industry ( Pierre Fabre Group) in Castres.
There is also a significant chemical sector in
Toulouse, which has been quite battered since the terrible explosion of AZFon September 21, 2001. It has been decided that chemical industries would be moved out of Toulouse, and a large campus devoted to cancer researchand bio-tech R&D will be opened on the site.
Elsewhere in the region industries are small and in decline, in particular around the formerly mining areas of
Alèsand Carmauxin the interior of the region.
ervices and Tourism
Services are the largest sector of the economy in the region. In particular, government services employ a significant part of the workforce, especially in small towns. Key administrations have been relocated to the region, such as France's National Meteorology Office (
Météo-France) relocated from Paristo Toulousein 1982.
The area is also a major tourist destination. There exists three types of tourism. First, a massive summer tourism industry on the coast, with huge sea resorts such as
Cap d'Agde, Palavas-les-Flots, or Grau-du-Roi, built in the 1970s.
Then history and art tourism, with
Carcassonne, Toulouse, Montpellier, countless Roman monuments (such as the Roman arenas in Nîmes), medieval abbeys, Romanesque churches, and old castles (such as the ruined Catharcastles in the mountains of Corbières, testimony of the bloody Albigensian Crusade).
More recently, "green" and sports tourism is on the rise, with the gorges of the
Tarn River(the most impressive canyon in Europe), the Ardèche Gorges, as well as the vast preserved expanses of Cévennes, Ardèche, Lauragais, etc.
Tourism on the
Canal du Midicombines history (for example viewing the impressive 9 locks of Fonseranes near Beziers) with activities such as boating on the Canal, and walking or cycling on the towpaths. Toulouseand Montpellierare also popular places for business congresses and conventions.
Mediterraneancoast of Languedoc has been settled by the Greeks, Phoenicians and Romans, and invaded by the Alamanni, Vandals, Visigoths( Septimania), and Saracens. Languedoc was known in the Middle Agesas the county of Toulouse, an independent county which was in theory part of the kingdom of France. In the 12th century, Languedoc was the center of the Catharreligious movement. The Roman Catholic Churchdeclared them heretics, and the Albigensian Crusadewiped them out. As a consequence, the county of Toulouse was taken by the crown of France in 1271, (the county of Toulouse was a vassal of the crown of France, but had many connections with the Crown of Aragon, which included Catalonia) and has been part of France ever since. Later the name given to the area was Languedoc, literally meaning "language of oc", from the word "yes" in the local Occitan language("oc", as opposed to "oïl", later "oui", in the north of France). The kings of France made Languedoc one of the provinces of the kingdom, and established the " parlement" of Languedoc in Toulouse. The "parlement" and the province were abolished at the time of the French Revolution, like all the other "parlements" and provinces of France.
Rugby unionis the "national" sport in Languedoc, unlike most other parts of France where football is the most popular sport. The Toulouserugby club (" Stade Toulousain") is one of the best rugby clubs in Europe, regularly winning the French championship, and having already been thrice European champion (1996, 2003, and 2005) in the ten years of existence of the European clubs rugby championship. Bullfightingand other bull related events are common in the Eastern part of Languedoc.Sea jousts ("Joutes nautiques") are held on the coast. Dating from the 11th century, this sport has local leagues and attracts large crowds.
Property in the Languedoc is quite varied and ranges from beautiful newly built villas with swimming pools and tennis courts, to rambling old village houses set into the old ramparts of ancient fortified towns. Some of these village houses date back a very long time. A small house in the village of Magalas,
Hérault"département", has a date of 13th century carved into its stonework. Being a large area, the type of property available in Languedoc varies a lot, from apartments in beach resorts such as Cap D'Agdeto isolated bastides in the rural interior.
* [http://www.sunfrance.net/UK/ Languedoc-Rousillon Tourist Board] Official Tourism Website for the Region (in English)
* [http://www.beziers-tourisme.fr/ The Canal du Midi at Béziers] Official Béziers Website (in English)
*fr icon [http://www.cr-languedocroussillon.fr/ The Languedoc-Rousillon] Official Site of the Région.
* [http://www.languedoc.com The Hérault tourist board website] Department of Hérault in Languedoc Région. All informations to discover Hérault and to book your holidays in Languedoc. Free brochures and lodging.
* [http://about-france.com/regions/languedoc.htm An introduction to the Languedoc for tourists] including regional overview and main tourist attractions.
* [http://www.lesjouteurs.com lesjouteurs.com : Le Site du Pavois d'Or et des Joutes Languedociennes]
* [http://www.regordane.info Regordane Info - The independent portal for The Regordane Way or St Gilles Trail] (in English and French)
* [http://www.sextantproperties.com/languedoc-roussillon Languedoc property guide]
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