- Saxophone technique
embouchureis the position of the facial muscles and shaping of the lips to the mouthpiecewhen playing a saxophone.
Manywho? believe it is relatively easy to become a competent
saxophonist, especially when transferring from other woodwind instruments, but a considerable amount of practice is usually required to develop a pleasing tone color and fluent technique.
Playing technique for the saxophone is subjective based upon the intended style (classical, jazz, rock, funk, etc.) and the player's idealized sound. The design of the saxophone allows for a big variety of different sounds, and the "ideal" saxophone sound and keys to its production are subjects of debate. However, there is a basic underlying structure to most techniques.
In the typical
embouchure, the mouthpiece is generally not taken more than halfway into the player's mouth. The lower lip is supported by the lower teeth, and makes contact with the reed. The playing-position is stabilized with firm, light pressure from the upper teeth resting on the mouthpiece (sometimes padded with a thin strip of rubber known as a "bite-pad" or "mouthpiece-patch"). The upper lip closes to create an air-tight seal. The "double embouchure" in which the upper lip is curled over the upper teeth is not commonly used in modern times, however each player may eventually develop his/her own variation of the basic embouchure style in order to accommodate their own physical structure.
Three things are imperative to a full and quick-speaking sound: appropriate air pressure which is aided by diaphragm support, correct lip/reed contact allowing the reed to vibrate optimally, and perhaps most importantly a high tongue position within the mouth. This provides focus to the player's air stream and thus to his/her sound. The player's diaphragm acts as a bellow, supplying a constant stream of air through the instrument.
vibratois much like a vocal or string vibrato, except the vibrations are made using the jaw instead of the diaphragm or fingers. The jaw motions required for vibrato can be simulated by saying the syllables "wah-wah-wah" or "tai-yai-yai." The method which is easiest and brings the best vibrato depends on the player. While most will say vibrato is not vital to saxophone performance (as its importance is inferior to proper tone quality), many argue it as being integral to the distinct saxophone color. Classical vibrato can vary between players (soft and subtle, or wide and abrasive). Many Classical players look to violinists as a model for their sound. It has been suggested that this follows the example of Marcel Muleof the Paris Conservatory, one of the early proponents of Classical Saxophone playing. Jazz vibrato varies even more amongst its users. Fast and wide vibrato is used by older "swing" style players, while some modern players use almost no vibrato except on slow ballads. Typically, less vibrato is used at faster tempos. Players just starting out with vibrato will usually start out slow with exaggerated jaw movements. As they progress, the vibrato becomes quicker until the desired speed is reached. A vibrato can be produced also by controlling the air stream with the tongue, or by diaphragm control. This is more difficult than the jaw vibrato, but often produces better results.Fact|date|date=March 2008
A number of effects can be used to create different or interesting sounds.
*"Growling" is a technique used whereby the saxophonist sings, hums, or growls, using the back of the throat while playing. [cite web |url=http://www.saxontheweb.net/Resources/Growl.html |title=Sound Effects for Saxophone 2: The Growl |last=Laughter |first=John |date=2006-09-04 |publisher=Sax on the Web |accessdate=2007-01-06] This causes a modulation of the sound, and results in a gruffness or coarseness of the sound. It is rarely found in classical or band music, but is often utilized in jazz, blues, rock 'n' roll, and other popular genres. Some notable musicians who utilized this technique are
Earl Bostic, Boots Randolph, Gato Barbieri, Ben Webster, Clarence Clemonsand King Curtis.
Glissandois a sliding technique where the saxophonist bends the note using voicing (tongue and throat placement)and at the same time slides up or down to another fingered note. Johnny Hodgeswas particularly noted for his mastery of this technique. A glissando can also be created using the tongue to control the airstream and holding the embouchure immobile. A more modern expert of the saxophone glissando is Phil Woods who can play a fluid glissando across the entire range of the horn.
*"Multiphonics" is the technique of playing more than one note at once. A special fingering combination causes the instrument to vibrate at two different pitches alternately, creating a warbling sound.
*The use of "overtones" involves fingering one note but altering the air stream to produce another note which is an
overtoneof the fingered note. For example, if low B♭ is fingered, a B♭ one octave above may be sounded by manipulating the air stream. Other overtones that can be obtained with this fingering include F, B♭, and D. The same air stream techniques used to produce overtones are also used to produce notes above high F# (the " altissimoregister").
*The technique of manipulating the air stream to obtain various effects is commonly known as "voicing." Voicing technique involves varying the position of the tongue and throat, causing the same amount of air to pass through either a more or less confined oral cavity. This causes the air stream to either speed up or slow down, respectively. As well as allowing the saxophonist to play overtones/altissimo with ease, proper voicing also helps the saxophonist develop a clear, even and focused sound throughout the range of the instrument. For a thorough discussion of voicing technique see "Voicing" by
Donald Sintaand Denise Dabney.
*"Slaptonguing" creates a "popping" or percussive sound. A slap may be notated either pitched, or non-pitched. Pitched splaps are also called "closed" slaps (referring to the mouth on the mouthpiece) and result in a tone identical to the fingered pitch. A non-pitched slap is also called an "open" slap, because the saxophonist must remove his or her mouth from the reed. It results in a more violent "thwack" sound. The amount of air that a saxophonist uses affects only the volume of the slap. The sound of the slap in both the open and closed varieties is created by the reed rebounding and striking the mouthpiece.
The use of electronic effects with the saxophone began with innovations such as the
Varitonesystem, which Selmer introduced in 1965. The Varitone included a small microphonemounted on the saxophone neck, a set of controls attached to the saxophone's body, and an amplifier and loudspeakermounted inside a cabinet. The Varitone's effects included echo, tremolo, tone control, and an octave divider. Two notable Varitone players were Eddie Harrisand Sonny Stitt. Similar products included the Hammond Condor.
In addition to playing the Varitone, Eddie Harris experimented with looping techniques on his 1968
album"Silver Cycles". David Sanbornand Traffic member Chris Wood employed effects such as wah-wahand delayon various recordings during the 1970s.
In more recent years, the term "
saxophonics" has been used to describe the use of these techniques by saxophonists such as Skerik, who has used a wide variety of effects that are often associated with the electric guitar, and Jeff Coffin, who has made notable use of an envelope follower.
A player's "tonal concept" is the sound that they wish to create.
The actual tone produced is influenced by several factors:
*The player's tonal concept
*The pressure and speed of the air stream produced by the player's diaphragm
*The position of the player's trachea,
throatand oral cavity
*The player's embouchure
*The position of the instrument relative to the player's body
*The design of the mouthpiece (chamber, facing, tip opening) and reed strength
*The design of the instrument
The saxophone embouchure involves:
*Keeping the chin in a relaxed and natural position
*Forming an "oo" shape with the mouth - as when saying the word "cool" ( as if having an orange in the back of your throat).
*Placing the mouthpiece into the mouth, with the upper teeth (or just the upper lip) resting on the top of the mouthpiece
*Keeping the throat open - as when saying "ah"
An important principle for any woodwind embouchure is that "the lip supports the reed". Saxophone players generally adopt either the single-lip or double-lip embouchure, then adapt it to their chosen instrument.
The "single-lip embouchure", used by most saxophonists, involves placing the upper teeth directly on the mouthpiece, curving the lower lip over the lower teeth.
The "double-lip embouchure", used by very few saxophonists, involves curving the upper lip under the upper teeth, so that the lip comes between the upper teeth and the slope of the mouthpiece; and curving the lower lip over the top of the lower teeth, so that it comes between the lower teeth and the reed.
The "curved out double-lip no teeth embochure", known by an even smaller number of saxophone players, involves taking the bottom lip and curving it out so that only a small part touches the teeth; resting just your lip on the top curved out, but with no teeth touching the mouthpiece; and putting your lips as far onto the mouthpiece as the reed and mouthpiece are still separated.
*Davis, Ben. "The Saxophone: A Comprehensive Course". London, Henri
Selmer& Co., 1932. (see External Links).
*Davis, Ben. "The New Saxophone Embouchure". London, 1928.
*O'Neill, John. "The Jazz Method for Saxophone". Schott & Co. Ltd, London. 1992. ISBN 0-946535-20-5.
*Hemke, Frederick. "The Teacher's Guide to the Saxophone". The Selmer Company, 1977. A teacher using the "single" embouchure.
*Kool, Jaap. "Das Saxophon". J. J. Weber, Leipzig. 1931. Translated by
Lawrence Gwozdzin 1987. (p.178).
*Rousseau, Eugene. "Saxophone High Tones". Etoile Music. 1978.
*Luckey, Robert. "Saxophone Altissimo". Advance Music, 1993.
*Fordham, John. "Jazz". Dorling Kindersley, 1993. ISBN 0-7513-0050-0.
*Teal, Larry. "The Art of Saxophone Playing". Miami: Summy-Birchard, 1963. ISBN 0-87487-057-7.
List of woodwind instruments
* [http://www.petethomas.co.uk/saxophone-embouchure.html "The Saxophone: A Comprehensive Course" by Ben Davis] discusses different types of saxophone embouchure.
* [http://www.saxophone-lessons.com/beginner-saxophone-lesson-2.asp Beginner Saxophone Lesson #2]
* [http://www.saxontheweb.net/Rock_n_Roll/RockSax08.html Rules of Saxophone Embouchure] by Pete Thomas
* [http://www.ryanfraser.com/lessons/start/embouchure.html All About Embouchure] by Ryan Fraser
* [http://www.theconcertband.com/Woodwind_embouchures.htm article on ConcertBand.com] discussing the "single" and "double" embouchures
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