- American Association of University Professors
name = American Association of University Professors
motto = Academic freedom for a free society
formation = 1915
nonprofit charitable association
location = flagicon|USA
membership = 47,000 professors and professional university staff
language = English
leader_title = President
John Dewey Arthur O. Lovejoy Albert Einstein
The American Association of University Professors (AAUP) is an
organizationof professorsand other academics in the United States. As of 1997, less than 5 percent of faculty members in the United States belong to the AAUP."THE ISSUE OF ACADEMIC FREEDOM: AN INTERVIEW WITH JIM GORDON" [http://magazine.byu.edu/?act=view&a=664] ] The AAUP is not an accrediting body. ] Its stated mission is to advance academic freedomand shared governance, to define fundamental professional values and standards for higher education, and to ensure higher education's contribution to the common good. Founded in 1915 by Arthur O. Lovejoy and John Dewey, the AAUP has helped to shape American higher education by developing the standards and procedures that maintain quality in education and academic freedom in the country's colleges and universities. Cary Nelsonis the current president.
Among the events that led to its founding was the dismissal of economics professor and sociologist
Edward A. Rossfrom Stanford University. Ross investigated the problems of immigrant workers, including the Chinese who worked for Southern Pacific, the railroad run by Stanford founder Leland Stanford. Leland's widow Jane Stanfordintervened and, over the objections of the president and the faculty, succeeded in getting Ross dismissed. [http://sociology.stanford.edu/department/history.html]
tatement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure
As the American Association of University Professors (AAUP) details the history of their policy on
academic freedomand tenure, the association maintains that there “are still people who want to control what professors teach and write.” The AAUP's " [http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/1940statement.htm Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure] " [http://www.campus-watch.org/article/id/566] is the definitive articulation of these principles and practices, and is widely accepted throughout the academic community. The association's procedures ensuring academic due process remain the model for professional employment practices on campuses throughout the country.
The association suggests that "The principles of Academic Freedom and Tenure" date back to a 1925 conference. Also providing a history, O’Neil (2005) suggests that the formal origins of the statement of academic freedom in the United States begins with an earlier 1915 “declaration of principles,” when the “fledgling” AAUP first convened (p. 92). While it seems commonsense that academic freedom aligns with the values of democratic rights and free speech, O'Neil (2005) also notes the ideas of academic freedom at the time were not entirely well received, where even the New York Times criticized the declaration, but that today the statement remains “almost as nearly inviolate as the U.S. Constitution” (p. 92-94). The AAUP notes that following a series of conferences beginning in 1934, the association officially adopted the "1925 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure," which then started to become institutionalized in universities only since the 1940s.
The AAUP offers the original principles, including the 1940 interpretations of the statement and a 1970 interpretation, which codified evaluation of the principles since the time they were adopted. The statement is straightforward, based on three principles of academic freedom. Briefly summarized, the first principle states that teachers are entitled to “full freedom in research and in publication of the results," and that the issue of financial gains from research depends on the relationship with the institution. The second principle of academic freedom is that teachers should have the same freedom in the classroom. The third asserts that college and university professors are citizens and should be free to speak and write as citizens “free from institutional censorship.” (American Association of University Professors, 1970)
Based upon five principles, the statement on academic tenure is equally simple and to the point. The first principle maintains that the terms of appointment are to be stated in writing. The second details the conditions and length of time professors are given to attain tenure. The third notes that during the probationary period before attaining tenure, the teacher "should have all the academic freedom that all other members of the faculty have." Detailing terms for appeal of the decision to deny tenure, the fourth point notes that both faculty and the institution’s governing board should judge whether tenure is to be granted or denied. The final point suggests that if the faculty member is not granted tenure appointment for reasons of financial restraint upon the university, the "financial exigency should be demonstrably bona fide."
Noting the Supreme Court Case "Keyishian v. The Board of Regents (1967)" which established the constitutionality and legal basis for the AAUP's principles of academic freedom, the 1970 interpretations believes that the statement is not a "static code but a fundamental document to set a framework of norms to guide adaptations to changing times and circumstances." The commentary iterates key points of the 1940 interpretations. The statement does not discourage controversy but emphasizes professionalism, believing that professors should be careful "not to introduce into their teaching controversial matter which has no relation to their subject." The interpretive statement also maintains that while professors have the rights of citizens, both scholars and educational officers "should remember that the public may judge their profession and their institution by their utterances," noting that every effort should be made "to indicate they are not speaking for the institution." The comments provide for further insights into the evaluation for tenure appointment and direct to the "1968 Recommended Institutional Regulations on Academic Freedom and Tenure," which recommends policy based upon the 1940 statement and a later documents on standards for faculty dismissal.
tatement on Government of Colleges and Universities
The American Association of University Professors published its first "Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities" in 1920, “emphasizing the importance of faculty involvement in personnel decisions, selection of administrators, preparation of the budget, and determination of educational policies. Refinements to the statement were introduced in subsequent years, culminating in the 1966 Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities” (American Association of University Professors, 1966). This statement was jointly formulated by the American Association of University Professors, the American Council on Education (ACE), and the Association of Governing Boards of Universities and Colleges (AGB). The statement clarifies the respective roles of governing boards, faculties, and administrations. The document does not provide for a “blueprint” to the
governanceof higher education. Nor was the purpose of the statement to provide principles for relations with industry and government (though it establishes direction on “the correction of existing weaknesses”). Rather, the statement aimed to establish a shared vision for the internal governance of institutions. Student involvement is not addressed in detail. The statement concerns general education policy and internal operations with an overview of the formal roles for governing structures in the organization and management of higher education.
Conflict with Religious Institutions
Some scholars have criticized the AAUP's "antipathy toward religious colleges and universities." ] And the AAUP has censured numerous religious institutions, including the Brigham Young University and the Catholic University of America."Censured Administrations" [http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/censuredadmins/] ] Others have criticized the AAUP's current stance regarding academic freedom in religious institutions as contradicting its 1940 statement on academic freedom, which permits religious institutions to place limits on academic freedom if those limitations are clearly stated. ] "The Idol of Academic Freedom" [http://www.leaderu.com/ftissues/ft9312/articles/nuechterlein.html] ] In 1970, the AAUP criticized its 1940 statement, positing that most religious institutions "no longer need or desire" to place limits on academic freedom."The Value of Limitations" [http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/academe/2006/JF/Feat/hard.htm] ] In 1988, the AAUP offered up another interpretation, stating that the "1970 de-endorsement clause" requires a religious institution to forfeit its "right to represent itself as an 'authentic seat of higher learning.'" ] But the AAUP's Committee A did not endorse it, thus the issue on whether a religious institution can place limits on academic freedom if those limitations are clearly stated appears to be unresolved. ]
In recent decades, the AAUP has added a focus on addressing the dramatic increase in faculty positions off the tenure track. An increasing percentage of faculty has become "contingent," or non-tenure track. Many are hired into part-time positions, often multiple part-time positions which together equal a full-time load or more, but with dramatically lower pay, little job security, and few or no fringe benefits. As of 2005, 48 percent of all faculty served in part-time appointments, and non-tenure-track positions of all types accounted for 68 percent of all faculty appointments in American higher education "Trends in Faculty Status, 1975-2005" [http://www.aaup.org/NR/rdonlyres/9218E731-A68E-4E98-A378-12251FFD3802/0/Facstatustrend7505.pdf] ] . The AAUP has released a number of reports on contingent faculty: in 2008 a report on accreditors' guidelines pertaining to part-time faculty and a report of an investigation involving alleged violations of the academic freedom and due process rights of a full-time contingent faculty member; and in 2006 an index providing data on the number of contingent faculty at various colleges. also in 2006, the AAUP adopted a new policy dealing with the job protections that should be afforded to part-time faculty members. in 2003, it released its major policy statement Contingent Appointments and the Academic Profession. The statement makes new recommendations in two areas: increasing the proportion of faculty appointments that are on the tenure line, and improving job security and due process protections for those with contingent appointments.
Attempt at Collective Bargaining
The AAUP attempted to establish itself as a
collective bargainingagent for college and university faculty in the 1970s and early '80s. In 1979, the Boston Universityfaculty went out on strike to gain recognition for the AAUP as its trade union. B.U. simultaneously was hit by a strike of clerical and custodial personnel seeking union recognition. Eventually, the administration of B.U. President John Silbersettled with the AAUP, which went back to work while the clerical and custodial personnel continued their strikes. Five B.U. professors, including Murray Levinand Howard Zinnof the political sciencedepartment, refused to cross the picket lines and were targeted for dismissal by Silber. The plight of the "B.U. 5" became a local cause celebre in the Boston-area academic community, and eventually Silber backed down. B.U. eventually sued the National Labor Relations Board (N.L.R.B.) to stop recognition of the AAUP as the collective bargaining agent of B.U.'s academic faculty.
The AAUP's role as a
trade unionwas obviated by the Supreme Court's 1980 "N.L.R.B. v. Yeshiva" decision, which ruled that professors were not employees but were a kind of supervisory personnel, and thus, not privileged to conduct collective bargaining. Many AAUP chapters became dormant until they were used by graduate students to push for collective bargaining rights. The struggle for on-campus unionization shifted from professors to graduate students-"cum"- teaching assistants, who won their first battle at New York University in 2001.
* [http://www.aaup.org American Association of University Professors]
* [http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/1940statement.htm 1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure]
* [http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/governancestatement.htm AAUP Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities]
* [http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/issuesed/governance/default.htm AAUP Statement on Shared Governance]
* [http://www.informaworld.com/smpp/content~content=a713768498~db=all "The Yeshiva Case: Special Analysis; The Impact of the Supreme Court Decision", by Aaron E. Levenstein, "National Center for the Study of Collective Bargaining in Higher Education Newsletter", v8 n1 (Jan-Feb 1980)]
* [http://findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_qa3860/is_200101/ai_n8932154 "Acadmemic Unions: The Legal Landscape", by Donna Euben, "Academe" (Jan/Feb 2001)]
* [http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/custom/portlets/recordDetails/detailmini.jsp?_nfpb=true&_&ERICExtSearch_SearchValue_0=ED185887&ERICExtSearch_SearchType_0=eric_accno&accno=ED185887 "The Constitutional Context: Universities, New Information Technologies and the US Supreme Court" (Abstract), by Sandra Braman "Information, Communication & Society", Volume 3, Issue 4 (December 2000)]
* [http://purl.oclc.org/umarchives/MUM00513/ AAUP Collection (MUM00513)] owned by the University of Mississippi, Archives and Special Collections.
Governance in higher education
University organizations (annotated list)
* American Association of University Professors. (1966). “Statement on Government of Colleges and Universities.” Retrieved September 26, 2006, [http://172.16.0.4/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/governancestatement.htm]
* American Association of University Professors, "1940 Statement of Principles on Academic Freedom and Tenure," Retrieved December 11, 2006, [http://www.aaup.org/AAUP/pubsres/policydocs/contents/1940statement.htm]
* O’Neil, R.M. (2005). Academic Freedom: Past, Present, and Future beyond September 11. In P.G. Altbach, R.O. Berdahl, and P.J. Gumport, (Eds.), "American Higher Education in the Twenty-First Century: Social, Political, and Economic Challenges", (2nd ed.). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press.
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