Kurzweil Music Systems

Kurzweil Music Systems

Kurzweil Music Systems is a company that produces electronic musical instruments for professionals and home users. Founded in 1982 by Raymond Kurzweil, a developer of reading machines for the blind, the company made use of many of the technologies originally designed for reading machines and adapted them to musical purposes. They released their first instrument, the K250 in 1983, and have continued producing new instruments ever since. The company was acquired by Young Chang in 1990. Hyundai now has a stake in Young Chang and has appointed Raymond Kurzweil as Chief Strategy Officer of Kurzweil Music Systems [ [http://www.kurzweilai.net/news/frame.html?main=news_single.html?id%3D6360 Hyundai names Kurzweil Chief Strategy Officer of Kurzweil Music Systems] ] .


K250 synthesizer

The company launched the K250 synthesizer in 1984: while rather limited by today's standards and quite expensive, it was considered to be the first really successful attempt to emulate the complex sound of a grand piano. This instrument was inspired by Ray Kurzweil's friendship with musician Stevie Wonder.

K2xxx synthesizers

The company's flagship line of synthesizer workstations, the K2xxx series, began to make real headway with the K2000, which introduced the company's acclaimed VAST (Variable Architecture Synthesis Technology) engine. Throughout the 1990s, updates and upgrades to the K2000 (and eventually its successors, the K2500 and K2600) ensured that the K2x series was regarded as one of the most powerful and best-sounding synthesizers/samplers available. Although initially very expensive, Kurzweil instruments were popular in top recording studios and for use with music production for film because of their high-quality sounds.

The K2000 was released in 1990 and was initially available in four versions, the K2000, K2000S, K2000R, and K2000RS. The S versions contain the hardware required for sampling, while the R versions are rack-mountable; the versions without an R feature 61 pressure-sensitive keys. The K2000 is capable of 24 voice polyphony, which is somewhat limited, although up to 4 oscillators per voice can be used and an intelligent voice stealing algorithm retires the playing notes which are estimated to be least audible rather than simply the oldest. Each voice of the K2000 is able to play a separate program, allowing for smooth transitions during live performance, this simple feature took Kurzweil's competitors more than a decade to match. The keyboard came with 2mb RAM but could be equipped with up to 64 megabytes of RAM for user loaded samples. Later models included the K2000VP (keyboard), K2000VPR (rack), K2VX (keyboard w/ optional ROMs), and K2VXS (keyboard w/ optional ROMs + Sampling) which were based on the same hardware as the K2000 series but had the K2500 sound set loaded.

The K2500, released in 1996, was a substantial improvement to the K2000 which increased polyphony to 48 voices and increased onboard RAM capacity to 128mb. The K2500 and later K2600 models can have a single patch running 192 virtual oscillators. There were also a number of other minor improvements as well as sound expansion options (daughterboard + 8mb piano expansion, 8mb orchestral expansion ROM, 8mb contemporary instruments ROM). [http://www.vintagesynth.com/kurzweil/k2500.jpgK2500 photograph]

The K2500 was available in 7 versions:K2500 - 76 note semi-weighted keyboard; K2500X - 88 note weighted action keyboard; K2500S - 76 note semi-weighted keyboard with Sampling; K2500XS - 88 note weighted action keyboard with Sampling;K2500AES - Audio Elite System, Limited Release (6 Units) 88 note weighted action keyboard with Sampling, KDFX, all available upgrade options, and an extensive sample library (retail cost, $20,000.00). K2500R - rack-mounted version (no keyboard); K2500RS - rack-mounted version with Sampling.The keyboard models included a ribbon controller and an input for a breath controller, making them the most expressive electronic instruments available at the time. Additionally one could add digital I/O to connect SPDIF or ADAT inputs and a PRAM expansion for loading larger soundsets or MIDI songs into memory. If one had purchased a model without onboard sampling, one could add the sampling option, PRAM, and reinstall their operating system to have the upgraded model.

The K2600, released in 1999, improved on the K2500 with the addition of a new effects engine called KDFX and an enhancement to the VAST engine called triple-mode. KDFX was also offered as an upgrade for the K2500 and later made available as a standalone product in the KSP8. KDFX drastically improved the quality of effects over the K2000 and K2500's built-in effects units, and added more flexibility such as using the Kurzweil as a vocoder. But the most impressive feature of the K2600 was Kurzweil's 'Triple Strike Piano', which is one of the most realistic-sounding sampled pianos available at the time. Patches for the K2500 were completely redesigned to incorporate the KDFX and triple strike capability. The K2600 uses different type sound expansion ROMs than the K2500 (although they contain the same samples), and could have a classic keys and general midi soundset added.

The Kurzweil K2661, released in 2004, is basically a full-featured K2600 with a 61-key keyboard, flash memory storage, and a redesigned soundset that includes the expansion sets that had been produced for the K2000, K2500, and K2600.

In 2008, all K26xx series synthesizers were discontinued by Kurzweil Music Systems, although inventory still remains (as of August 2008). This leaves the PC3 and PC3X (which have no sampling capability; see below) as Kurzweil's current flagship synthesizers for the time being.

PCx Series

In the mid 90s, they introduced the PC88 keyboard which was advertised more as a MIDI controller. It was good for this purpose because it had 88 fully weighted keys and the ability to set four zones for controlling different instruments. It was also a bit smaller so it was more portable than the K series instruments. The instrument itself had over 300 internal sound patches and the ability to combine them together with different effects. It was common for performers to use this instrument in combination with a rack mount K series synth. The PC88MX included a General MIDI soundboard with additional high-quality sounds taken from the K2xxx series. Unlike the K2xxx series, the PCx series did not include floppy disk nor SCSI expansion, although sounds could be edited and new sounds created. Another distinguishing feature of the PCx series was the lack of an onboard sequencer. In the late 90s, Kurzweil introduced the PC2 Series of keyboards which contained the famed Triple Strike Piano and used a VAST synthesis engine similar to the K2xxx series, and later introduced the PC1 Series, which was a slightly cut down version of the PC2, losing only the KB3 organ mode, and some inputs and outputs. In Spring 2008, Kurzweil launched the PC3 Performance Controller, which has next generation VAST synthesis technology derived from the K2xxx series but vastly improved with new features, new algorithms, virtual analog synthesis, sequencer, powerful effects processor based on Kurzweil KSP8 unit, and overall better sounds than previous Kurzweil synths.

SP Series

The initial Kurzweil SP Series are Stage Pianos based on the popular Kurzweil Micro Piano half-rack module of the mid-90's. It provides 32 sounds including pianos, electric pianos, organs, strings and synths.The board is also a fairly capable midi controller, and features two ribbon controllers.In Summer of 2007, Kurzweil launched the SP2.


The Kurzweil Midiboard, a dedicated MIDI controller, was conceived of and specified by Jeff Tripp, then president of Key Concepts. It was perhaps the first of the pure keyboard controllers, brought to market to complement Kurzweil's rack mounted synthesizers. 'Midiboard' was, in fact, a Key Concepts trademark, transferred to Kurzweil Music Systems as part of a licensing agreement.

Its novel sensing system, invented and patented by Tripp and Key Concepts co-founder, John Allen, provided velocity, individual aftertouch pressure, and release velocity information from a single sensor per key. Each sensor was shaped as an arch of conductive rubber which served as one plate of a capacitor and was designed to deform (change shape under pressure) in a scaled way . The sensors were nicknamed 'sushi sensors' because the first prototype was conductive rubber sheet (think 'nori') held in a barrel shape by a center of white silicone RTV (think 'the rice'). Released in 1988, the Midiboard's software and electronics were designed under contract to Key Concepts by Hal Chamberlin, then of Micro Technology Unlimited.

The Midiboard had its virtues and its drawbacks. It was reasonable to manufacture and relatively inexpensive for the range of input forces, both presses and impulse inputs, it could transduce. One of its drawbacks was that it was not well damped in very light playing, making touch uncertain. At some point, working for Kurzweil, Hal Chamberlin debounced this burble. A hardware fix was possible - splitting the sensors.

It contained a number of interesting innovations, some of which remain fairly uncommon. For example, most midi controllers provide aftertouch data, but the midiboard is capable of polyphonic aftertouch, a feature found on few other keyboards. The midiboard also provides comprehensive signal routing, layering, and transposition control. These advanced features are not without their cost: the Midiboard weighs approximately 100 lb and is fairly difficult to use.


*Roland Corporation
*Yamaha Corporation

Kurzweil Users

* Eddie Van Halen of Van Halen 1984 Tour
* Paul Schaffer of CBS Orchestra
* Ashton Miranda of Cherry BlackStone
* Keith Emerson of Emerson, Lake and Palmer
* Amanda Palmer of the duo The Dresden Dolls
* Richard Wright, of Pink Floyd on their 1994 Division Bell Tour (K2000s) - and on the album itself.
* Jon Carin, supporting Pink Floyd on their 1994 Division Bell Tour (K2000s)
* Duran Duran
* New Order
* Front Line Assembly
* Delerium
* Steven Johannessen, visual music composer, synthesist, virtual reality artist
* Alicia Keys
* Guy Babylon, Elton John Band
* Mike Rowe (Sheryl Crow)
* Morten Sandager (Mercenary)
* Chris Kilmore (Incubus as of July, 2007)
* Lisa Brigantino (Lez Zeppelin)
* David Paich (Toto)
* Terry Lawless (U2)
* Jamie Orlando, The Crash Motive
* David Innis, Restless Heart
* Geri Allen
* Tori Amos (on her albums From the Choirgirl Hotel and To Venus and Back)
* Lukas Wooller of Maxïmo Park
* Skinny Puppy and their adjuct projects aDuck and Download (band)
* Peter Gabriel
* John Novello
* David Bowie
* Jordan Rudess, Dream Theater
* Mike Garson
* Maurice Gibb
* Jean Michel Jarre
* The Postal Service
* Henrik Klingenberg
* Lucas, White & Edsey
* Lexaunculpt
* Brian M. Murphy
* Kate Laurel Smith
* Eva Kathryn
* Alex Tirrell, Shryne
* Flood (producer)
* Steve Walsh, Kansas
* Kerry Livgren, Kansas
* Vangelis
* Stevie Wonder (he was already a user of Kurzweil reading machines)
* Billy Joel, usually only in concerts.
* Roy Bittan
* Brent Mydland (Grateful Dead) 1987 until death (1990)
* Dntel
* Aaron Rothe
* Robert Miles
* 32crash
* Implant


External links

* [http://www.kurzweilmusicsystems.com/ The homepage of the company]
* [http://community.sonikmatter.com/forums/ Kurzweil Discussion Forums]
* [http://www.sonikmatter.com/wiki/Kurzweil Kurzweil Wiki]
* [http://www.tangentcats.com VASTprogrammer]
* [http://www.middleofnowhere.com/music_archive.asp Kurzweil synthesizer music demonstrations at MiddleOfNowhere]
* [http://launch.groups.yahoo.com/group/VASTprogrammer VASTprogrammer @ Yahoo]
* [http://launch.groups.yahoo.com/group/Kurzweil250/ Kurzweil K250 Users' Group]
* [http://www.kurzweil.or.kr kurzweil Korea forums]
* [http://www.cunka.com/forum/index.php Mastering V.A.S.T. forum]

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