- Islam during the Qing Dynasty
The rise of the
Qing Dynasty(1644-1911) made relations between the Muslims and Chinese more difficult. The Qing rulers were Manchu, not Han, and were themselves a minority in China. They employed the tactics of divide and conquer to keep the Muslims, Hans, Tibetans and Mongolians in conflict with each otherBBC Islam in China (650-present) [http://www.bbc.co.uk/religion/religions/islam/history/china_1.shtml] ] and used military force to maintain control and punish Muslims for supporting their predecessors, the Ming. [China's Islamic awakening [http://www.asiamedia.ucla.edu/article.asp?parentid=11135] ] The dynasty prohibited ritual slaughtering of animals, followed by forbidding the construction of new mosques and the pilgrimage to Mecca. [Keim(1954), pg.605 ] The Qing Dynasty witnessed five Muslim rebellions.
Muslim rebellions in China
Early revolts in Xinjiang, Shaanxi and Gansu
From 1755–1757, the
Qianlong Emperorwas at war with the Dzungarsof Dzungaria. With the conquest of the Dzungaria, there was attempt to divide the Xinjiang region into four sub-khanates under four chiefs who were subordinate to the emperor. Similarly, the Qing made members of was a member of the Ak Taghliq clan of East Turkestan Khojas, rulers in the western Tarim Basin, south of the Tianshan Mts. In 1758-59, however, rebellions against this arrangement broke out both north and south of the Tian Shan mountains. Then in the oasis of Ushto the south of Lake Balkashin 1765. In Gansu, disagreements between the adherents of Khafiya and Jahriya, two forms of Sufismas well as perceived mismanagement, corruption, and anti-Muslim attitudes of the Qing officials resulted in attempted uprisings by Huiand Salarfollowers of the Jahriya in 1781 and 1783, but they were promptly suppressed. Kashgaria was able to be free of Qing control during an invasion by Jahangir Khojawho had invaded from Kokand, which lasted from 1820–1828. The oases of Kashgarand Yarkandwere not recaptured until 1828, after a three year campaign. In Kashgaria, this was followed by another invasion in 1829 by Mahommed Ali Khan and Yusuf Khoja, the brother of Jahangir. In 1846, a new Khoja revolt in Kashgarunder Kath Tora led to his accession to rulership of Kashgar as an authoritarian ruler. His reign, however, was brief, for at the end of seventy-five days, on the approach of the Chinese, he fled back to Kokandamid the jeers of the inhabitants.. [cite book|first=Hodong|last=Kim|title=Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877] The last of the Khoja revolts was in 1857 under Wali Khan, a self-indulgent debaucherer, and the murderer of the famous German explorer, Adolf Schlagintweit. Wali Khan had invaded Kashgarfrom his base in Kokand, capturing Kashgar. Aside from his murder of Adolf Schlagintweit, his cruelty found many other reflections in the local legends. It is said that he killed so many innocent Muslims that four or six minarets were built from the skulls of the victims ( kala minara ); or that once, when an artisan made a sabre for him, he tested the weapon by cutting off the artisan's son head, who came with his father and was standing nearby, after that with words " it's a really good sabre " he presented artisan with a gift. This reign of tyranny did not make Kashgarians miss the Khoja too much when he was defeated by Qing troops after ruling the city for four months and forced to flee back to Kokand. [cite book|first=Hodong|last=Kim|title=Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877]
Panthay Rebellionlasted from 1855 to 1873. The war took place mostly in the southwestern provinceof Yunnan. Disagreements between Muslimand non-Muslim tin miners was the spark that lit the tensions that led to war. The Muslims were led by, for the most part of the war, by Du Wenxiu (1823-1872). The insurgents took the city of Dali and declared the new nation of Pingnan Guo, meaning “the Pacified Southern Nation”. The rebellion found support among China's aboriginal population and Burma. [Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig, Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. Lonely Planet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1740596870]
Dungan revoltby the Hui from the provinces of Shaanxi, Gansu, Ningxiaand Xinjiang, lasted from 1862 to 1877. The failure of the revolt led to the flight of many Dunganpeople into Imperial Russia.
During the mid-nineteenth century, the
Muslims and the Miao peopleof Chinarevolted against the Qing Dynasty,most notably in the Dungan revolt(1862-1877) and the Panthay rebellion1856-1873) in Yunnan. These little known revolts were suppressed by the Manchu government in a manner that amounts to genocide, [Levene, Mark. Genocide in the Age of the Nation-State. I.B.Tauris, 2005. ISBN 1845110579, page 288] [Giersch, Charles Patterson. Asian Borderlands: The Transformation of Qing China's Yunnan Frontier. Harvard University Press, 2006. ISBN 1845110579, page 219] [Dillon, Michael. [http://www.hsais.org/2essay0405_4.htm China’s Muslim Hui Community] . Curzon, 1999. ISBN 0700710264, page xix] killing a million people in the Panthay rebellion, [Damsan Harper, Steve Fallon, Katja Gaskell, Julie Grundvig,Carolyn Heller, Thomas Huhti, Bradley Maynew, Christopher Pitts. LonelyPlanet China. 9. 2005. ISBN 1740596870] Gernet,Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1996.ISBN 0521497124 ] several million in the Dungan revoltandfive million in the suppression of Miao peoplein Guizhou. A "washing off the Muslims"(洗回 (xi Hui)) policy had been long advocated by officials in the Manchu government. [Jonathan N. Lipman, "Familiar Strangers: A History of Muslims in Northwest China (Studies on Ethnic Groups in China)", University of Washington Press (February 1998), ISBN 0295976446.]
In the Qing dynasty, Muslims had many mosques in the large cities, with particularly important ones in
Beijing, Xi'an, Hangzhou, Guangzhou, and other places (in addition to those in the western Muslim regions). The architecture typically employed traditional Chinese styles, with Arabic-language inscriptions being the chief distinguishing feature. Many Muslims held government positions, including positions of importance, particularly in the army.
As travel between China and the Middle East became easier,
Sufismspread throughout the Northwestern China in the early decades of the Qing Dynasty (mid-17th century through early 18th century). [Gladney (1999)] The most important Sufi orders ("menhuan") included:
Qadiriyya, which was established in China through Qing Jingyi also known as Hilal al-Din (1656-1719), student of the famous Central Asian Sufi teachers, Khoja Afaqand Kjoja Abd Alla. He was known among the Hui Sufis as Qi Daozu (Grand Master Qi). The shrine complex around "great tomb" ("da gongbei") in Linxiaremains the center of the Qadiriyya in China.
Khufiyya: a Naqshbandiorder.
Jahriyya: another Naqshbandi"menhuan", founded by Ma Mingxin.
Around this time, Chinese Muslims also became the first Muslims in
New Zealand. They came as golddiggers to work in the Dunstan gold fields in Otago in 1868. [ [http://www.islamawareness.net/Oceania/NewZealand/community.html Muslim Community in New Zealand] ]
* Kim Hodong, "Holy War in China: The Muslim Rebellion and State in Chinese Central Asia, 1864-1877". Stanford University Press (March 2004). ISBN 0804748845.
* cite book
last = Keim
first = Jean
title = Les Musulmans Chinois
publisher = France Asie
*Gernet, Jacques. A History of Chinese Civilization. 2. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996.ISBN 0-521-49712-4
Islam during the Ming Dynasty
Islam in China (1911-present)
Islam in China
Religion in China
Demographics of the People's Republic of China
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