- Black separatism
Black separatism is a movement to create separate institutions for
black peoplein societies historically dominated by whites, particularly the United States. Black separatists also often seek a separate homeland. Black separatists generally think that black people can not advance in a society dominated by white people.
In his discussion of
black nationalismin the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, the historian Wilson Jeremiah Mosesobserves that "black separatism, or self-containment, which in its extreme form advocated the perpetual physical separation of the races, usually referred only to a simple institutional separatism, or the desire to see black people making independent efforts to sustain themselves in a provenly hostile environment." [Harvnb|Moses|1988|p= 23] Black separatism stems from hopelessness and emotional states that may range from slight irritationto intense rage about white racism but it also serves a secondary objective, completing the aims of white racists. [Barry N. Schwartz, Robert Disch, White Racism, Its History, Pathology, and Practice. 1975. Page 162]
Scholars Talmadge Anderson and James Stewart further make a distinction between the "classical version of Black separatism advocated by
Booker T. Washington" and "modern separatist ideology." They observe that "Washington's accommodationist advice" at the end of the nineteenth century "was for Blacks not to agitate for social, intellectual, and professional equality with Whites." By contrast, they observe, "contemporary separatists exhort Blacks not only to equal Whites but to surpass them as a tribute to and redemption of their African heritage."Harvnb|Anderson|Stewart|2007|p= 203] Anderson and Stewart add, moreover, that in general "modern black separatism is difficult to define because of its similarity to Black nationalism."
Indeed, black separatism's specific goals were historically in flux and varied from group to group.
Martin Delanyin the 19th century and Marcus Garveyin the 1920s outspokenly called for African Americans to return to Africa, by moving to Liberia. Benjamin "Pap" Singletonlooked to form separatist colonies in the American West. The Nation of Islamcalls, much more quietly, for an independent black state on American soil. More mainstream views within black separatism hold that black people would be better served by schools and businesses exclusively for black people, and by black local politicians and police.
Some individual mainstream black separatists supported anti-
segregationists and integrationists within the African American community.Fact|date=August 2008 They generally hold that black people can and should advance within the larger American society and call on them to work to achieve that through personal improvement, educational achievement, business involvement, and political action. Martin Luther King, who was a key speaker and leader in the political effort to overthrow segregation in the 1960s, and Malcolm X, who until May 21, 1964 was known as a black separatist from the Nation of Islam, may personify the opposition between the two views.
*citation|last= Moses |first= Wilson Jeremiah |title= The Golden Age of Black Nationalism, 1850-1925 |place= Oxford |publisher= Oxford University Press |year= 1988 |isbn= 978-0195206395 .
*citation|last1= Anderson |first1= Talmadge |last2= Stewart |first2= James B. |title= Introduction to African American studies: Transdisciplinary Approaches and Implications |place= Baltimore |publisher= Inprint |year= 2007 |isbn= 9781580730396.
* Jenkins, B. L., & Phillis, S. (1976). Black separatism: a bibliography. Westport, Conn: Greenwood Press.
*Hall, R. L. (1977). Black separatism and social reality: rhetoric and reason. New York: Pergamon Press.
* Hall, R. L. (1978). Black separatism in the United States. Hanover, N.H.: Published for Dartmouth College by the University Press of New England.
* Bell, H. H., Holly, J. T., & Harris, J. D. (1970). Black separatism and the Caribbean, 1860. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
* Browne, R. S., & Vernon, R. (1968). On black separatism. New York: Pathfinder Press.
* Franklin Foer, [http://www.slate.com/id/1080/ Racial Integration]
* [http://halfricanrevolution.blogspot.com/2007/06/brief-white-folks-guide-to-black.html Too Sense: A Brief White Folks Guide To Black Separatism] , halfricanrevolution;
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