- Goods and Services Tax (Australia)
The GST (Goods and Services Tax) is a
value added taxof 10% on most goods and services transactions in Australia.
It was introduced by the Howard Government on
1 July 2000, replacing the previous Federal wholesale sales taxsystem and designed to phase out a number of various State and Territory Government taxes, duties and levies such as banking taxes and stamp duty.
Introduction of the GST
The idea for a broad-based consumption tax was first proposed by
Paul Keatingat the 1985 Tax Summit but was dropped at the behest of then Labor Prime Minister Bob Hawkeafter pressure from the ACTU, welfare groups and business, which did not like its association with proposals for capital gains and fringe benefits taxes.
The idea was refloated in 1991 by the opposition Liberal-National Coalition, and was the centrepiece of the opposition's Fightback! platform at the 1993 election, ironically when Keating was Prime Minister. However, the opposition had difficulty explaining the policy, as illustrated in leader
John Hewson's infamous Birthday Cake Interview, and Keating's campaign exploited public distrust of the GST. The GST was seen as the main reason for the opposition's surprise election loss of the 'unloseable election' in 1993. John Howardwas re-elected leader of the Liberal party in 1995, and pledged to "never, ever" introduce the GST. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/pm/content/2004/s1185116.htm PM defends his credibility] "PM", 25 August 2004] Howard led the Liberal-National Coalition to a large victory in the 1996 elections.
In the lead-up to the 1998 election, Howard campaigned on the GST, with the GST replacing all former
sales taxes, as well as applying to all goods and services. Howard suffered a 4.61 percent two party preferredswing against the coalition, only gaining 49.02 percent of the vote, but retained a parliamentary majority of seats in the lower house, describing the victory as a "mandate for the GST". Lacking a Senate majority, and with Labor adamantly opposed to the introduction of the GST, the government turned to the minor parties for support.
A prominent selling point of the legislation was that every dollar collected from the GST would be redistributed to the states. As such, an agreement was enacted with the state and territory governments of Australia in 1999 that their various duties, levies and taxes on consumption would be removed gradually over time, with the budget shortfall being replaced by GST income from the
Commonwealth Grants Commission. Furthermore, personal income tax and company tax was reduced to offset the GST.
During the 1998 election campaign, the Democrats leader
Meg Leesstated that they were opposed to the GST unless food, books and tourism packages sold offshore were exempt and other tax measures were implemented. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/election98/news/diary/week03.htm ABC election diary] ] The government initially stated that these exemptions were not possible, and looked more likely to win a compromise with independent Senator Brian Harradine, but eventually a compromise was reached with Lees, including most basic food items being exempt from the GST, library purchases of books being refunded the GST, a temporary 8% refund on school textbooks, increases to welfare payments. and greater powers to the ACCC. A proposal was made to exempt tampons from the GST, but it was dismissed by the Prime Minister. [ [http://www.abc.net.au/am/stories/s95145.htm AM Archive - Howard rules out GST changes ] ] The legislation was passed on June 28, 1999as "A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999". It gained assent on 8 July 1999and came into operation on 1 July 2000.
John Howard claimed that "GST would never become part of Liberal Party policy", and then went on to implement it. To this day, GST is still charged on most items that the Australian consumer would purchase. Implementation of the GST tax system was a long, complex, and politically sensitive process; now that the GST is in place it is unlikely that a future government will attempt to replace it.
Meg Lees viewed the dilution of the GST legislation as a success, but the issue split the Democrats, with Senators
Natasha Stott Despojaand Andrew Bartlett crossing the floorto vote against the GST. The move triggered infighting amongst the Democrats, and while the Democrats performed reasonably well in the 2001 federal election, the infighting worsened, resulting in the loss, at the 2004 federal election, of the balance of power they once held in the Senate.
Australian Labor Party leader
Kim Beazleystill believed the tax was unpopular with the Australian public, and continued to oppose it during the government's second term. During the 2001 election campaign, Labor made the touted 'GST rollback' a centrepiece of its election platform. Labor attempted to reprise the effects of the birthday cake interview by deriding the application of GST to cooked and uncooked chickens, but failed to ignite public passion because the true extent of the proposed [http://www.abc.net.au/pm/stories/s395649.htm rollbacks were revealed to be relatively modest] ; applying only to gas and electricity bills. Labor lost the election, effectively ending all serious opposition to the GST.
However, in early 2006, the GST returned to frontpage headlines when the
New South Wales(NSW) State Government and the Federal Treasurer Peter Costello[http://www.abc.net.au/worldtoday/content/2006/s1605569.htm launched adversarial advertising campaigns] concerning distribution of the GST to the states. NSW Treasurer, Michael Costaargued in full-page newspaper advertisements and on televised commercials that NSW consumers paid AUD$13 billion in GST but received only AUD$10 billion back from the Commonwealth Grants Commission, and as such he said that NSW was subsidising resource rich states like Queenslandand Western Australia. The Federal Government counteracted with its own advertising campaign which claimed that NSW had breached its contractual obligations under the 1999 GST Agreement by continuing to charge unfair stamp duties and land taxes, which were supposed to have been abolished. After weeks of intense media and public pressure, the NSW State Government announced in its Budget that it would reduce stamp duty and land tax; however critics argued that the State Government did not go far enough with much broader tax reform in NSW required to help encourage investment and business that had been forced elsewhere due to an unfavourable NSW business environment. This was in response to the Commonwealth allowing another AUD$72 million in grants to NSW, in addition to existing annual increases. [cite web | title=NSW wins crumb from the GST pie | work=Sydney Morning Herald | url=http://www.smh.com.au/news/national/winning-a-crumb-from-the-gst-pie/2006/03/01/1141191732199.html | accessmonthday=May 20 | accessyear=2006]
Economic and Social Effects of the GST
Many critics have argued that the GST is similar to a
regressive tax, which has a more pronounced effect on lower income earners, meaning that the tax consumes a higher proportion of their income, compared to those earning large incomes. However, these claims are somewhat mitigated due to the corresponding reductions in personal income taxes, state banking taxes, federal wholesales tax and some fuel taxes that were implemented when the GST was introduced. Thus, according to the then Federal Treasurer, Peter Costello, people were effectively paying no extra tax. [cite web | title=Extract of the Address to the Economic Society Forecasting Conference Lunch | work=Commonwealth Treasurer | url=http://www.treasurer.gov.au/tsr/content/speeches/1999/006.asp | accessmonthday=May 20 | accessyear=2006]
The preceding months before the GST became active saw a spike in consumption as consumers rushed to purchase goods that they perceived would be substantially more expensive with the GST. Once the tax came into effect however, there was plummeting consumer consumption and economic growth, that by the first fiscal quarter of 2001, the Australian economy plunged into negative growth for the first time in more than 10 years. [cite web | title=Labor says GST has king hit economy | work=ABC 7.30 Report | url=http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/stories/s256437.htm | accessmonthday=May 20 | accessyear=2006] Consumption soon returned to normal however. The Government was also criticised by small business owners on the grounds that administrative costs and red-tape had soared as businesses had to submit
Business Activity Statements regularly to the Australian Taxation Office, in addition to having to pay one-eleventh of revenue for GST purposes. [cite web | title=Goods and Services Tax (GST) - 7.1.4 - Risks | work=Queensland University of Technology | url=http://www.mopp.qut.edu.au/G/G_07_01.html#G_07_01.04.mdoc | accessmonthday=May 20 | accessyear=2006] The sheer number of businesses applying for Australian Business Numbers (ABNs) exceeded expectations and was indicative of the effect of the GST in forcing businesses out of the cash economy and into paying tax.Fact|date=June 2007
A study commissioned by the
Curtin University of Technology, Perth in 2000, argued that the introduction of the GST would negatively impact the real estate market as it would add up to 8 percent to the cost of new homes and reduce demand by about 12 percent. [cite web | title=Background and General Economic Impact of a GST on the Real Estate Industry | work=Curtin University of Technology, Sydney | url=http://espace.lis.curtin.edu.au/archive/00000292/01/pinto_dtp_gst_real_estate.pdf | accessmonthday=May 21 | accessyear=2006] These claims may have been accurate during the early GST period, however the real estate market returned to unprecedented boom between 2002 and 2004 where property prices and demand increased dramatically, particularly in Sydneyand Melbourne. During the 2004-2006 period Perth has also witnessed a sharp climb in real estate prices and demand.
Tourist Refund Scheme
The removal of import duties has led to a change in discounts available when duty free shopping and the process for claiming tax savings. Previously goods could be purchased from suppliers offering duty free pricing upon presentation of a current passport and airline tickets. The goods would then remain sealed until the passenger had passed through the customs area at an airport.
Following the introduction of the GST, a receipt for goods with a combined total over AUD$300 is eligible for a refund of any GST paid upon exiting the country with refunds claimed at a [http://www.customs.gov.au/site/page.cfm?u=4366 TRS] (Tourist Refund Scheme) counter at the airport. The advantage of this arrangement is that goods purchased up to a month prior to departure may be freely used within Australia prior departure as long as they are carried in hand luggage and presented when making a refund claim. This obviously does not extend to consumable goods such as food and beverages.
Statistics on the GST can be found in publications of the Australian Taxation Office. These are the Annual Report and Taxation Statistics.
* [http://www.ato.gov.au/corporate/content.asp?doc=/content/00108378.htm&mnu=41112&mfp=001/001 Annual Report 2006-07]
* [http://www.ato.gov.au/corporate/content.asp?doc=/content/00117625.htm&page=43&H43 GST and other indirect taxes]
Goods and Services Tax (Canada)
Goods and Services Tax (Hong Kong)
Goods and Services Tax (New Zealand)
Goods and Services Tax (Singapore)
*The legislation: [http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/legis/cth/consol_act/antsasta1999402/ A New Tax System (Goods and Services Tax) Act 1999]
* [http://www.ato.gov.au/ Australian Tax Office]
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